Project Gutenberg's Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets, by John Evelyn This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets Author: John Evelyn Release Date: April 1, 2005 [EBook #15517] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ACETARIA: A DISCOURSE OF SALLETS *** Produced by David Garcia and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.[pg]
Printed in the United States of America[pg]
This edition of Acetaria is a faithful reprint of the First Edition of 1699, with the correction of a few obvious typographical errors, and those noted in the Errata of the original edition. Whereas no attempt has been made to reproduce the typography of the original, the spirit has been retained, and the vagaries of spelling and punctuation have been carefully followed; also the old-style S [ſ] has been retained. Much of the flavour of Acetaria is lost if it is scanned too hurriedly; and one should remember also that Latin and Greek were the gauge of a man of letters, and if the titles and quotations seem a bit ponderous, they are as amusing a conceit as the French and German complacencies of a more recent generation.[pg]
John Evelyn, famous for his "Diary," was a friend and contemporary of Samuel Pepys. Both were conscientious public servants who had held minor offices in the government. But, while Pepys' diary is sparkling and redolent of the free manners of the Restoration, Evelyn's is the record of a sober, scholarly man. His mind turned to gardens, to sculpture and architecture, rather than to the gaieties of contemporary social life. Pepys was an urban figure and Evelyn was "county." He represents the combination of public servant and country gentleman which has been the supreme achievement of English culture.
Horace Walpole said of him in his Catalogue of Engravers, "I must observe that his life, which was extended to eighty-six years, was a course of inquiry, study, curiosity, instruction and benevolence."
Courtiers, artists, and scientists were his friends. Grinling Gibbons was brought to the King's notice by Evelyn, and Henry Howard, Duke of Norfolk, was persuaded by him to present the Arundel Marbles to the University of Oxford. In London he engaged in divers charitable and civic affairs and was commissioner for improving the streets and buildings [pg] in London. He had charge of the sick and wounded of the Dutch War and also, with the fineness of character typical of his kind, he remained at his post through the Great Plague. Evelyn was also active in organizing the Royal Society and became its first secretary.
In the country he spent his time studying, writing and in developing his own and his brother's estates. He translated several French books, one of them by Nicolas de Bonnefons was entitled "The French Gardener; instructions how to cultivate all sorts of fruit-trees." Evelyn undoubtedly knew another book of de Bonnefons called "Les Delices de la Campagne." Delights of the country, according to de Bonnefons, consisted largely in delights of the palate, and perhaps it was this book which suggested to Evelyn to write a cookery-garden book such as Acetaria. He also translated Jean de la Quintinie's "The Compleat Gardener." His "Sylva, or a discourse of Forest Trees" was written as a protest against the destruction of trees in England being carried on by the glass factories and iron furnaces, and the book succeeded in inducing landowners to plant millions of trees.
The list of Evelyn's writings shows a remarkable diversity in subject matter. There was a book on numismatics and translations from [pg] the Greek, political and historical pamphlets, and a book called "Fumifugium or the inconvenience of the Aer and Smoke of London dissipated," in which he suggests that sweet-smelling trees should be planted to purify the air of London. He also wrote a book called "Sculpture, or the History of Chalcography and Engraving in Copper."
Living in the country and cultivating his fruits and vegetables, Evelyn grew to be an ardent believer in vegetarianism and is probably the first advocate in England of a meatless diet. He was so keen on preparing foods without meat that, like another contemporary, Sir Kenelm Digby, he collected recipes. These, interspersed with delightful philosophic comments and some directions about gardening, were assembled in the little book Acetaria. This was published in 1699 along with the ninth edition of the "Kalendarium Hortense," a gardener's almanac.
The material for Acetaria was gathered as early as 1679 with the idea of making it one chapter of an encyclopedic work on horticulture. The Plan of a Royal Garden, was Evelyn's outline for that ambitious work.
The recipes are unusual and delicious and some of them are practical for today, especially for the owner of a garden where pot herbs are [pg] cultivated. Evelyn uses the pot herbs for flavoring soups, egg dishes, "salletts" and puddings. The eggs with sweet herbs prepared in ramikins and the pudding flavored with the petals of calendulas are particularly good.
The book reveals his zest for living and the culture of his mind. It also shows the thought and life of a country gentleman during the reign of Charles the Second. Evidently, in Evelyn's home, the spirit of scientific investigation prevailed and there was a delight in new ideas. Evelyn supervised the garden and knew how to instruct the cook to prepare new dishes.
Although Acetaria is a book of directions for gardening and cooking, it is not the least didactic but is written in a discoursive style and with a leisureliness and in a rhythm suited to the slow pace of a horse trotting through the winding lanes of the English countryside. As we read, we can almost see the butler bringing a fragrant pudding to the family assembled around the dining table in the wood-panelled room. Or again we can almost smell the thyme, mint, and savory growing in tidy rows in the well-tilled and neatly ordered garden of John Evelyn.
Helen M. Fox
Ου παντος ανδρος εσιν αρτυσια καλως [Greek: Ou pantos andros hesin artusia kalôs.]
Crat. in Glauc.
Printed for B. Tooke at the Middle-
Temple Gate in Fleetstreet, 1699.
T he Idea and Plan of the Royal-Society having been firſt conceiv'd and delineated by a Great and Learned Chancellor, which High Office your Lordſhip deservedly bears; not as an Acquiſition of Fortune, but your Intellectual Endowments; [pg] Conſpicuous (among other Excellencies) by the Inclination Your Lordſhip diſcovers to promote Natural Knowledge: As it juſtifies the Diſcernment of that Aſſembly, to pitch upon Your Lordſhip for their Preſident, ſo does it no leſs diſcover the Candor, yea, I preſume to ſay, the Sublimity of your Mind, in ſo generouſly honoring them with your Acceptance of the Choice they have made.
A 1Chancellor, and a very Learned Lord, was the Firſt who honoured the Chair; and a no leſs Honorable and Learned Chancellor, reſigns it to Your Lordſhip: So as after all the Difficulties and Hardſhips the Society [pg] has hitherto gone through; it has thro' the Favour and Protection of its Preſidents, not only preſerv'd its Reputation from the Malevolence of Enemies and Detracters, but gone on Culminating, and now Triumphantly in Your Lordſhip: Under whoſe propitious Influence, I am perſwaded, it may promiſe it ſelf That, which indeed has hitherto been wanting, to juſtifie the Glorious Title it bears of a ROYAL SOCIETY. The Emancipating it from ſome Remaining and Diſcouraging Circumſtances, which it as yet labours under; among which, that of a Precarious and unſteady Abode, is not the leaſt.
This Honor was reſerv'd for Your Lordſhip; and an Honor, permit me [pg] to call it, not at all unworthy the Owning of the Greateſt Person living: Namely, the Eſtabliſhing and Promoting Real Knowledge; and (next to what is Divine) truly ſo called; as far, at leaſt, as Humane Nature extends towards the Knowledge of Nature, by enlarging her Empire beyond the Land of Spectres, Forms, Intentional Species, Vacuum, Occult Qualities, and other Inadequate Notions; which, by their Obſtreperous and Noiſy Diſputes, affrighting, and (till of late) deterring Men from adventuring on further Diſcoveries, confin'd them in a lazy Acquieſcence, and to be fed with Fantaſms and fruitleſs Speculations, which ſignifie nothing to the ſpecifick Nature of Things, [pg] solid and uſeful knowledge; by the Inveſtigation of Cauſes, Principles, Energies, Powers, and Effects of Bodies, and Things Viſible; and to improve them for the Good and Benefit of Mankind.
My Lord, That which the Royal Society needs to accompliſh an entire Freedom, and (by rendring their Circumſtances more eaſie) capable to ſubſiſt with Honor, and to reach indeed the Glorious Ends of its Inſtitution, is an Eſtabliſhment in a more Settl'd, Appropriate, and Commodious Place; having hitherto (like the Tabernacle in the Wilderneſs) been only Ambulatory for almoſt Forty Years: But Solomon built the Firſt Temple; and what forbids us to hope, [pg] that as Great a Prince may build Solomon's Houſe, as that Great Chancellor (one of Your Lordſhip's Learned Predeceſſors) had deſign'd the Plan; there being nothing in that Auguſt and Noble Model impoſſible, or beyond the Power of Nature and Learned Induſtry.
Thus, whilſt King Solomon's Temple was Conſecrated to the God of Nature, and his true Worſhip; This may be Dedicated, and ſet apart for the Works of Nature; deliver'd from those Illuſions and Impoſtors, that are ſtill endeavouring to cloud and depreſs the True, and Subſtantial Philoſophy: A ſhallow and Superficial Inſight, wherein (as that Incomparable Perſon rightly obſerves) having [pg] made ſo many Atheiſts: whilſt a profound and thorow Penetration into her Receſſes (which is the Buſineſs of the Royal Society) would lead Men to the Knowledge, and Admiration of the Glorious Author.
And now, My Lord, I expect ſome will wonder what my Meaning is, to uſher in a Trifle, with ſo much Magnificence, and end at last in a fine Receipt for the Dreſſing of a Sallet with an Handful of Pot-Herbs! But yet, My Lord, this Subject, as low and deſpicable as it appears, challenges a Part of Natural History, and the Greateſt Princes have thought it no Diſgrace, not only to make it their Diverſion, but their Care, and to promote and encourage it in the midſt [pg] of their weightieſt Affairs: He who wrote of the Cedar of Libanus, wrote alſo of the Hyſop which grows upon the Wall.
To verifie this, how much might I ſay of Gardens and Rural Employments, preferrable to the Pomp and Grandeur of other Secular Buſineſs, and that in the Eſtimate of as Great Men as any Age has produc'd! And it is of ſuch Great Souls we have it recorded; That after they had perform'd the Nobleſt Exploits for the Publick, they ſometimes chang'd their Scepters for the Spade, and their Purple for the Gardiner's Apron. And of theſe, ſome, My Lord, were Emperors, Kings, Conſuls, Dictators, and Wiſe Stateſmen; who amidſt the most [pg] important Affairs, both in Peace and War, have quitted all their Pomp and Dignity in Exchange of this Learned Pleaſure: Nor that of the moſt refin'd Part of Agriculture (the Philoſophy of the Garden and Parterre only) but of Herbs, and wholeſom Sallets, and other plain and uſeful Parts of Geoponicks, and Wrote Books of Tillage and Husbandry; and took the Plough-Tackle for their Banner, and their Names from the Grain and Pulſe they ſow'd, as the Marks and Characters of the higheſt Honor.
But I proceed no farther on a Topic ſo well known to Your Lordſhip: Nor urge I Examples of ſuch Illuſtrious Perſons laying aſide their Grandeur, and even of deſerting their Stations; [pg] (which would infinitely prejudice the Publick, when worthy Men are in Place, and at the Helm) But to ſhew how conſiſent the Diverſions of the Garden and Villa were, with the higheſt and buſieſt Employment of the Commonwealth, and never thought a Reproch, or the leaſt Diminution to the Gravity and Veneration due to their Perſons, and the Noble Rank they held.
Will Your Lordſhip give me Leave to repeat what is ſaid of the Younger Pliny, (Nephew to the Naturaliſt) and whom I think we may parallel with the Greateſt of his time (and perhaps of any ſince) under the Worthieſt Emperor the Roman world ever had? A Perſon of vaſt Abilities, Rich, [pg] and High in his Maſter's Favour; that ſo Husbanded his time, as in the Midſt of the weightieſt Affairs, to have Anſwer'd, and by his 2Example, made good what I have ſaid on this Occaſion. The Ancient and beſt Magiſtrates of Rome allow'd but the Ninth Day for the City and Publick Buſineſs; the reſt for the Country and the Sallet Garden: There were then fewer Cauſes indeed at the Bar; but never greater Juſtice, nor better Judges and Advocates. And 'tis hence obſerved, that we hardly find a Great and Wise Man among the Ancients, qui nullos habuit hortos, [pg] excepting only Pomponius Atticus; wilſt his Dear Cicero profeſſes, that he never laid out his Money more readily, than in the purchaſing of Gardens, and thoſe ſweet Retirements, for which he ſo often left the Roſtra (and Court of the Greateſt and moſt flouriſhing State of the World) to viſit, prune, and water them with his own Hands.
But, My Lord, I forget with whom I am talking thus; and a Gardiner ought not to be ſo bold. The preſent I humbly make your Lordſhip, is indeed but a Sallet of Crude Herbs: But there is among them that which was a Prize at the Iſthmian Games; and Your Lordſhip knows who it was both accepted, and rewarded as deſpicable [pg] an Oblation of this kind. The Favor I humbly beg, is Your Lordſhip's Pardon for this Preſumption. The Subject is mean, and requires it, and my Reputation in danger; should Your Lordſhip hence ſuſpect that one could never write ſo much of dreſſing Sallets, who minded anything ſerious, beſides the gratifying a Senſual Appetite with a Voluptuary Apician Art.
Truly, My Lord, I am ſo far from deſigning to promote thoſe Supplicia Luxuriæ, (as Seneca calls them) by what I have here written; that were it in my Power, I would recall the World, if not altogether to their Priſtine Diet, yet to a much more wholſome and temperate than is now in Faſhion: And what if they find me [pg] like to ſome who are eager after Hunting and other Field-Sports, which are Laborious Exerciſes? and Fiſhing, which is indeed a Lazy one? who, after all their Pains and Fatigue, never eat what they take and catch in either: For ſome ſuch I have known: And tho' I cannot affirm ſo of my ſelf, (when a well dreſt and excellent Sallet is before me) I am yet a very moderate Eater of them. So as to this Book-Luxury, I can affirm, and that truly what the Poet ſays of himſelf (on a leſs innocent Occaſion) Laſciva pagina, vita proba. God forbid, that after all I have advanc'd in Praiſe of Sallets, I ſhould be thought to plead for the Vice I cenſure, and chuſe that of Epicurus for my Lemma; In hac arte [pg] conſenui; or to have ſpent my time in nothing elſe. The Plan annext to theſe Papers, and the Apparatus made to ſuperſtruct upon it, would acquit me of having bent all my Contemplations on Sallets only. What I humbly offer Your Lordſhip, is (as I ſaid) Part of Natural Hiſtory, the Product of Horticulture, and the Field, dignified by the moſt illuſtrious, and ſometimes tilled Laureato Vomere; which, as it concerns a Part of Philoſophy, I may (without Vanity) be allow'd to have taken ſome Pains in Cultivating, as an inferior Member of the Royal Society.
But, My Lord, wilſt You read on (if at leaſt You vouchſafe me that Honor to read at all) I am conſcious [pg] I rob the Publick of its moſt Precious Moments.
I therefore Humbly again Implore Your Lordſhip's Pardon: Nor indeed needed I to have ſaid half this, to kindle in Your Breaſt, that which is already ſhining there (Your Lordſhip's Eſteem of the Royal Society) after what You were pleas'd to Expreſs in ſuch an Obliging manner, when it was lately to wait upon Your Lordſhip; among whom I had the Honor to be a Witneſs of Your Generous, and Favourable Acceptance of their Addreſſes, who am,
Your Lordſhip's Moſt Humble
and Moſt Obedient Servant,
T he Favourable Entertainment which the Kalendar has found, encouraging the Bookſeller to adventure upon a Ninth Impreſſion, I could not refuſe his Requeſt of my Reviſing, and Giving it the beſt Improvement I was capable, to an Inexhauſtible Subject, as it regards a Part of Horticulture; and offer ſome little Aid to ſuch as love a Diverſion ſo Innocent and Laudable. There are thoſe of late, who have arrogated, and given the Glorious Title of Compleat and Accompliſh'd Gardiners, to what they have Publiſh'd; as if there were nothing wanting, nothing more remaining, or farther to be expected from the Field; and that Nature had been quite emptied of all her fertile Store: Whilſt thoſe who thus magnifie their Diſcoveries, have after all, penetrated but a very little Way into this Vaſt, Ample, and as yet, Unknown Territory; Who ſee not, that it would ſtill require the Revolution of many Ages; deep, and long Experience, for any Man to Emerge that Perfect, and Accompliſh'd Artiſt Gardiner they boaſt themſelves to be: Nor do I think, Men will ever reach the End, and far extended Limits of the Vegetable [pg] Kingdom, ſo incomprehenſible is the Variety it every Day produces, of the moſt Uſeful, and Admirable of all the Aſpectable Works of God; ſince almoſt all we ſee, and touch, and taſte, and ſmell, eat and drink, are clad with, and defended (from the Greateſt Prince to the Meaneſt Peaſant) is furniſhed from that Great and Univerſal Plantation, Epitomiz'd in our Gardens, highly worth the Contemplation of the moſt Profound Divine, and Deepeſt Philosopher.
I ſhould be aſham'd to acknowledge how little I have advanced, could I find that ever any Mortal Man from Adam, Noah, Solomon, Ariſtotle, Theophraſtus, Dioſcorides, and the reſt of Nature's Interpreters, had ever arriv'd to the perfect Knowledge of any one Plant, or Vulgar Weed whatſoever: But this perhaps may yet poſſibly be reſerv'd for another State of Things, and a 3longer Day; that is, When Time ſhall be no more, but Knowledge ſhall be encreas'd.
We have heard of one who ſtudied and contemplated the Nature of Bees only, for Sixty Years: After which, you will not wonder, that a Perſon of my Acquaintance, ſhould have ſpent [pg] almoſt Forty, in Gathering and Amaſſing Materials for an Hortulan Deſign, to ſo enormous an Heap, as to fill ſome Thouſand Pages; and yet be comprehended within two, or three Acres of Ground; nay, within the Square of leſs than One (ſkilfully Planted and Cultivated) ſufficient to furniſh, and entertain his Time and Thoughts all his Life long, with a moſt Innocent, Agreeable, and Uſeful Employment. But you may juſtly wonder, and Condemn the Vanity of it too, with that Reproach, This Man began to build, but was not able to finiſh! This has been the Fate of that Undertaking; and I dare promiſe, will be of whoſoever imagines (without the Circumſtances of extraordinary Aſſistance, and no ordinary Expence) to purſue the Plan, erect, and finiſh the Fabrick as it ought to be.
But this is that which Abortives the Perfection of the moſt Glorious and Uſeful Undertakings; the Unſatiable Coveting to Exhauſt all that ſhould, or can be ſaid upon every Head: If ſuch a one have any thing elſe to mind, or do in the World, let me tell him, he thinks of Building too late; and rarely find we any, who care to ſuperſtruct upon the Foundation of another, and whoſe Ideas are alike. There ought therefore to be as many Hands, and Subſidiaries to ſuch a Deſign (and thoſe Matters too) as there are [pg] diſtinct Parts of the Whole (according to the ſubſequent Table) that thoſe who have the Means and Courage, may (tho' they do not undertake the Whole) finiſh a Part at leaſt, and in time Unite their Labours into one Intire, Compleat, and Conſummate Work indeed.
Of One or Two of these, I attempted only a Specimen in my SILVA and the KALENDAR; Imperfect, I ſay, because they are both capable of Great Improvements: It is not therefore to be expected (Let me uſe the Words of an Old, and Experienced Gardiner) Cuncta me dicturum, quae vaſtitas ejus ſcientiæ contineret, ſed plurima; nam illud in unius hominis prudentiam cadere non poterit, neque eſt ulla Diſciplina aut Ars, quæ ſingulari conſummata ſit ingenio.
May it then ſuffice aliquam partem tradidiſſe, and that I have done my Endeavour.
... Jurtilis olim
Ne Videar vixiſſe.
Much more might I add upon this Charming, and Fruitful Subject (I mean, concerning Gardening:) But this is not a Place to Expatiate, deterr'd, as I have long ſince been, from ſo bold an Enterprize, as the Fabrick I mentioned. I content my ſelf then with an Humble Cottage, and a Simple Potagere, Appendant to the [pg] Calendar; which, Treating only (and that briefly) of the Culture of Moderate Gardens; Nothing ſeems to me, ſhou'd be more Welcome and Agreeable, than whilſt the Product of them is come into more Requeſt and Uſe amongſt us, than heretofore (beſide what we call, and diſtinguiſh by the Name of Fruit) I did annex ſome particular Directions concerning S A L L E T S.[pg]
Deſcribing, and Shewing the Amplitude, and Extent of that Part of Georgicks, which belongs to Horticulture.
In Three Books
Chap. I. Of Principles and Elements in general.
Chap. II. Of the Four (vulgarly reputed) Elements; Fire, Air, Water; Earth.
Chap. III. Of the Celeſtial Influences, and particularly of the Sun, Moon, and of the Climates.
[pg] Chap. IV. Of the Four Annual Seasons.
Chap. V. Of the Natural Mould and Soil of a Garden.
Chap. VI. Of Compoſts, and Stercoration, Repaſtination, Dreſſing and Stirring the Earth and Mould of a Garden.
Chap. I. A Garden Derived and Defin'd; its Dignity, Diſtinction, and Sorts.
Chap. II. Of a Gardiner, how to be qualify 'd, regarded and rewarded; his Habitation, Cloathing, Diet, Under-Workmen and Aſſistants.
Chap. III. Of the Inſtruments belonging to a Gardiner; their various Uſes, and Machanical Powers.
Chap. IV. Of the Terms us'd, and affected by Gardiners.
Chap. V. Of Encloſing, Fencing, Plotting, and diſpoſing of the Ground; and of Terraces, Walks, Allies, Malls, Bowling-Greens, &c.
Chap. VI. Of a Seminary, Nurſeries; and of Propagating Trees, Plants and Flowers, Planting and Tranſplanting, &c.
Chap. VII. Of Knots, Parterres, Compartiments, Borders, Banks and Emboſſments.
[pg] Chap. VIII. Of Groves, Labyrinths, Dedals, Cabinets, Cradles, Cloſe-Walks, Galleries, Pavilions, Portico's, Lanterns, and other Relievo's; of Topiary and Hortulan Architecture.
Chap. IX. Of Fountains, Jetto's, Caſcades, Rivulets, Piſcinas, Canals, Baths, and other Natural, and Artificial Water-works.
Chap. X. Of Rocks, Grotts, Cryptæ, Mounts, Precipices, Ventiducts, Conſervatories, of Ice and Snow, and other Hortulan Refreſhments.
Chap. XI. Of Statues, Buſts, Obelisks, Columns, Inſcriptions, Dials, Vaſa's, Perſpectives, Paintings, and other Ornaments.
Chap. XII. Of Gazon-Theatres, Amphitheatres, Artificial Echo's, Automata and Hydraulic Musck.
Chap. XIII. Of Aviaries, Apiaries, Vivaries, Inſects, &c.
Chap. XIV. Of Verdures, Perennial Greens, and Perpetual Springs.
Chap. XV. Of Orangeries, Oporotheca's, Hybernacula, Stoves, and Conſervatories of Tender Plants and Fruits, and how to order them.
Chap. XVI. Of the Coronary Garden: Flowers and Rare Plants, how they are to be Raiſed, Governed and Improved; and how the Gardiner is to keep his Regiſter.
[pg] Chap. XVII. Of the Philoſophical Medical Garden.
Chap. XVIII. Of Stupendous and Wonderful Plants.
Chap. XIX. Of the Hort-Yard and Potagere; and what Fruit-Trees, Olitory and Eſculent Plants, may be admitted into a Garden of Pleaſure.
Chap. XX. Of Sallets.
Chap. XXI. Of a Vineyard, and Directions concerning the making of Wine and other Vinous Liquors, and of Teas.
Chap. XXII. Of Watering, Pruning, Plaſhing, Palliſading, Nailing, Clipping, Mowing, Rowlling, Weeding, Cleanſing, &c.
Chap. XXIII. Of the Enemies and Infirmities to which Gardens are obnoxious, together with Remedies.
Chap. XXIV. Of the Gardiner's Almanack or Kalendarium Hortenſe, directing what he is to do Monthly, and what Fruits and Flowers are in prime.
Chap. I. Of Conſerving, Properating, Retarding, Multiplying, Tranſmuting, and Altering the [pg] Species, Forms, and (reputed) Subſtantial Qualities of Plants, Fruits and Flowers.
Chap. II. Of the Hortulan Elaboratory; and of diſtilling and extracting of Waters, Spirits, Eſſences, Salts, Colours, Reſuſcitation of Plants, with other rare Experiments, and an Account of their Virtues.
Chap. III. Of Compoſing the Hortus Hyemalis, and making Books, of Natural, Arid Plants and Flowers, with ſeveral Ways of Preſerving them in their Beauty.
Chap. IV. Of Painting of Flowers, Flowers enamell'd, Silk, Callico's, Paper, Wax, Guns, Paſts, Horns, Glaſs, Shells, Feathers, Moſs, Pietra Comeſſa, Inlayings, Embroyderies, Carvings, and other Artificial Repreſentations of them.
Chap. V. Of Crowns, Chaplets, Garlands, Feſtoons, Encarpa, Flower-Pots, Noſegays, Poeſes, Deckings, and other Flowery Pomps.
Chap. VI. Of Hortulan Laws and Privileges.
Chap. VII. Of the Hortulan Study, and of a Library, Authors and Books aſſiſtant to it.
Chap. VIII. Of Hortulan Entertainments, Natural, Divine, Moral, and Political; with divers Hiſtorical Paſſages, and Solemnities, to [pg] ſhew the Riches, Beauty, Wonder, Plenty, Delight, and Univerſal Uſe of Gardens.
Chap. IX. Of Garden Burial.
Chap. X. Of Paradiſe, and of the moſt Famous Gardens in the World, Ancient and Modern.
Chap. XI. The Deſcription of a Villa.
Chap. XII. The Corollary and Concluſion.
——Laudato ingentia rura,
S allets in general conſiſt of certain Eſculent Plants and Herbs, improv'd by Culture, Induſtry, and Art of the Gard'ner: Or, as others ſay, they are a Compoſition of Edule Plants and Roots of ſeveral kinds, to be eaten Raw or Green, Blanch'd or Candied: ſimple--and per ſe, or intermingl'd with others according to the Seaſon. The Boil'd, Bak'd, Pickl'd, or otherwiſe diſguis'd, variouſly accommodated by the skilful Cooks, to render them grateful to the more feminine Palat, or Herbs rather for the Pot, &c. challenge not the name of Sallet ſo properly here, tho' ſometimes mention'd; And therefore,
Thoſe who Criticize not ſo nicely upon the Word, ſeem to diſtinguiſh the 4Olera (which were never eaten Raw) from Acetaria, which  were never Boil'd; and ſo they derive the Etymology of Olus, from Olla, the Pot. But others deduce it from Όλος, comprehending the Univerſal Genus of the Vegetable Kingdom; as from Παν Panis; eſteeming that he who had 5Bread and Herbs, was ſufficiently bleſs'd with all a frugal Man cou'd need or deſire: Others again will have it, ab Olendo, i.e. Creſcendo, from its continual growth and ſpringing up: So the younger Scaliger on Varro: But his Father Julius extends it not ſo generally to all Plants, as to all the Eſculents, according to the Text: We call thoſe Olera (ſays 6Theophraſtus) which are commonly eaten, in which ſenſe it may be taken, to include both Boil'd and Raw: Laſt of all, ab Alendo, as having been the Original, and genuine Food of all Mankind from the 7Creation.
A great deal more of this Learned Stuff were to be pick'd up from the Cumini Sectores, and impertinently Curious; whilſt as it concerns  the buſineſs in hand, we are by Sallet to underſtand a particular Compoſition of certain Crude and freſh Herbs, such as uſually are, or may ſafely be eaten with ſome Acetous Juice, Oyl, Salt, &c. to give them a grateful Guſt and Vehicle; excluſive of the 8 ψυχραι τραπεζαι, eaten without their due Correctives, which the Learned 9Salmaſius, and, indeed generally, the 10old Phyſicians affirm (and that truly) all Crude and raw λαχανα require to render them wholſome; ſo as probably they were from hence, as 11Pliny thinks, call'd Acetaria: and not (as Hermolaus and ſome others) Acceptaria ab Accipiendo; nor from Accedere, though ſo 12ready at hand, and eaſily dreſs'd; requiring neither Fire, Coſt, or Attendance, to boil, roaſt, and prepare them as did Fleſh, and other Proviſions; from which, and other Prerogatives, they were always in uſe, &c. And hence indeed the more frugal Italians and French, to this Day, gather Ogni Verdura, any thing almoſt that's Green and Tender, to the very Tops of Nettles; ſo as every Hedge affords  a Sallet (not unagreeable) ſeaſon'd with its proper Oxybaphon of Vinegar, Salt, Oyl, &c. which doubtleſs gives it both the Reliſh and Name of Salad, Emſalada 13, as with us of Sallet; from the Sapidity, which renders not Plants and Herbs alone, but Men themſelves, and their Converſations, pleaſant and agreeable: But of this enough, and perhaps too much; leaſt whilſt I write of Salt and Sallet, I appear my ſelf Inſipid: I paſs therefore to the Ingredients, which we will call
T he Materials of Sallets, which together with the groſſer Olera, conſiſt of Roots, Stalks, Leaves, Buds, Flowers, &c. Fruits (belonging to another Claſs) would require a much ampler Volume, than would ſuit our Kalendar, (of which this pretends to be an Appendix only) ſhould we extend the following Catalogue further than to a brief enumeration only of ſuch Herbaceous Plants, Oluſcula and smaller Eſculents, as are chiefly us'd in Cold Sallets, of whose Culture we have treated there; and as  we gather them from the Mother and Genial Bed, with a touch only of their Qualities, for Reasons hereafter given.
1. Alexanders, Hippoſelinum; S. Smyrnium vulgare (much of the nature of Perſly) is moderately hot, and of a cleanſing Faculty, Deobſtructing, nouriſhing, and comforting the Stomach. The gentle freſh Sprouts, Buds, and Tops are to be choſen, and the Stalks eaten in the Spring; and when Blanch'd, in Winter likewiſe, with Oyl, Pepper, Salt, &c. by themſelves, or in Compoſition: They make alſo an excellent Vernal Pottage.
2. Artichaux, Cinara, (Carduus Sativus) hot and dry. The Heads being ſlit in quarters firſt eaten raw, with Oyl, a little Vinegar, Salt, and Pepper, gratefully recommend a Glaſs of Wine; Dr. Muffet ſays, at the end of Meals.
They are likewiſe, whilſt tender and ſmall, fried in freſh Butter criſp with Perſley. But then become a moſt delicate and excellent Reſtorative, when full grown, they are boil'd the common way. The Bottoms are alſo bak'd in Pies, with Marrow, Dates, and other rich Ingredients: In Italy they ſometimes broil them, and as the Scaly Leaves open, baſte them with freſh and ſweet Oyl; but with Care extraordinary,  for if a drop fall upon the Coals, all is marr'd; that hazard eſcap'd, they eat them with the Juice of Orange and Sugar.
The Stalk is Blanch'd in Autumn, and the Pith eaten raw or boil'd. The way of preſerving them freſh all Winter, is by ſeparating the Bottoms from the Leaves, and after Parboiling, allowing to every Bottom, a ſmall earthen glaz'd Pot; burying it all over in freſh melted Butter, as they do Wild-Fowl, &c. Or if more than one, in a larger Pot, in the ſame Bed and Covering, Layer upon Layer.
They are alſo preſerv'd by ſtringing them on Pack-thread, a clean Paper being put between every Bottom, to hinder them from touching one another, and ſo hung up in a dry place. They are likewiſe Pickl'd.
'Tis not very long ſince this noble Thiſtle came firſt into Italy, Improv'd to this Magnitude by Culture; and ſo rare in England, that they were commonly ſold for Crowns a piece: But what Carthage yearly ſpent in them (as Pliny computes the Sum) amounted to Seſtertia Sena Millia, 30000 l. Sterling.
Note, That the Spaniſh Cardon, a wild and ſmaller Artichoak, with ſharp pointed Leaves, and leſſer Head; the Stalks being Blanch'd and  tender, are ſerv'd-up a la Poiverade (that is with Oyl, Pepper, &c.) as the French term is.
3. Baſil, Ocimum (as Baulm) imparts a grateful Flavour, if not too ſtrong, ſomewhat offenſive to the Eyes; and therefore the tender Tops to be very ſparingly us'd in our Sallet.
4. Baulm, Meliſſa, Baum, hot and dry, Cordial and exhilarating, ſovereign for the Brain, ſtrengthning the Memory, and powerfully chaſing away Melancholy. The tender Leaves are us'd in Compoſition with other Herbs; and the Sprigs freſh gather'd, put into Wine or other Drinks, during the heat of Summer, give it a marvellous quickneſs: This noble Plant yields an incomparable Wine, made as is that of Cowſlip-Flowers.
5. Beet, Beta; of which there is both Red, Black, and White: The Coſta, or Rib of the White Beet (by the French call'd the Chard) being boil'd, melts, and eats like Marrow. And the Roots (eſpecially of the Red) cut into thin ſlices, boil'd, when cold, is of it ſelf a grateful winter Sallet; or being mingl'd with other Oluſcula, Oyl, Vinegar, Salt, &c. 'Tis of quality Cold and Moiſt, and naturally ſomewhat Laxative:  But however by the Epigrammatiſt ſtil'd Fooliſh and Inſipid, as Innocentior quam Olus (for ſo the Learned 14Harduin reads the place) 'tis by Diphilus of old, and others ſince, preferr'd before Cabbage as of better Nouriſhment: Martial (not unlearn'd in the Art of Sallet) commends it with Wine and Pepper: He names it indeed—Fabrorum prandia, for its being ſo vulgar. But eaten with Oyl and Vinegar, as uſually, it is no deſpicable Sallet. There is a Beet growing near the Sea, which is the moſt delicate of all. The Roots of the Red Beet, pared into thin Slices and Circles, are by the French and Italians contriv'd into curious Figures to adorn their Sallets.
6. Blite, Blitum; Engliſh Mercury, or (as our Country Houſe wives call it) All-good, the gentle Turiones, and Tops may be eaten as Sparagus, or ſodden in Pottage: There is both a white and red, much us'd in Spain and Italy; but beſides its humidity and deterſive Nature, 'tis Inſipid enough.
7. Borrage, Borrago (Gaudia semper ago) hot and kindly moiſt, purifying the Blood, is an  exhilarating Cordial, of a pleaſant Flavour: The tender Leaves, and Flowers eſpecially, may be eaten in Compoſition; but above all, the Sprigs in Wine, like thoſe of Baum, are of known Vertue to revive the Hypochondriac, and chear the hard Student. See Bugloſs.
8. Brooklime, Anagallis aquatica; moderately hot and moiſt, prevalent in the Scorbute, and Stone.
9. Bugloſs, Bugloſſum; in mature much like Borrage, yet ſomething more aſtringent. The Flowers of both, with the intire Plant, greatly reſtorative, being Conſerv'd: And for the reſt, ſo much commended by Averroes; that for its effects, cheriſhing the Spirits, juſtly call'd Euphroſynum; Nay, ſome will have it the Nepenthes of Homer: But indeed, what we now call Bugloſs, was not that of the Ancients, but rather Borrage, for the like Virtue named Corrago.
Burnet, See Pimpinella.
10. Buds, Gemmæ, Turiones; the firſt Rudiments and Tops of moſt Sallet-Plants, preferrable to all other leſs tender Parts; ſuch as Aſhen-Keys, Broom-buds, hot and dry, retaining  the vertue of Capers, eſteem'd to be very opening, and prevalent againſt the Spleen and Scurvy; and being Pickl'd, are ſprinkl'd among the Sallets, or eaten by themſelves.
11. Cabbage, Braſſica (and its ſeveral kinds) Pompey's beloved Diſh, ſo highly celebrated by old 15Cato, Pythagoras, and Chryſippus the Phyſician (as the only Panacea) is not ſo generally magnify'd by the reſt of Doctors, as affording but a craſs and melancholy Juice; yet Looſening if but moderately boil'd, if over-much, Aſtringent, according to C. Celſus; and therefore ſeldom eaten raw, excepting by the Dutch. The Cymæ, or Sprouts rather of the Cole are very delicate, ſo boil'd as to retain their Verdure and green Colour. In raiſing this Plant great care is to be had of the Seed. The beſt comes from Denmark and Ruſſia, eſpecially the Cauly-flower, (anciently unknown) or from Aleppo. Of the French, the Pancaliere a la large Costé, the white, large and ponderous are to be choſen; and ſo the Cauly-flower: After boiling ſome ſteep them in Milk, and ſeethe them again in Beef-Broth: Of old they added a little Nitre. The Broccoli from Naples, perhaps the  Halmyridia of Pliny (or Athenæus rather) Capiata marina & florida, our Sea-keele (the ancient Crambe) and growing on our Coaſt, are very delicate, as are the Savoys, commended for being not ſo rank, but agreeable to moſt Palates, and of better Nouriſhment: In general, Cabbages are thought to allay Fumes, and prevent Intoxication: But ſome will have them noxious to the Sight; others impute it to the Cauly-flower rather: But whilſt the Learned are not agreed about it, Theophraſtus affirms the contrary, and Pliny commends the Juice raw, with a little Honey, for the moiſt and weeping Eye, not the dry or dull. But after all, Cabbage ('tis confeſs'd) is greatly accus'd for lying undigeſted in the Stomach, and provoking Eructations; which makes me wonder at the Veneration we read the Ancients had for them, calling them Divine, and Swearing, per Braſſicam. 'Tis ſcarce an hundred Years ſince we firſt had Cabbages out of Holland. Sir Anth. Aſhley of Wiburg St. Giles in Dorſetſhire, being (as I am told) the firſt who planted them in England.
12. Cardon, See Artichaux.
13. Carrots, Dauci, or Paſtinaca Sativa; temperately warm and dry, Spicy; the beſt are  yellow, very nouriſhing; let them be rais'd in Ground naturally rich, but not too heavy.
14. Chervile, Chærophyllum, Myrrhis; The ſweet aromatick Spaniſh Chervile, moderately hot and dry: The tender Cimæ, and Tops, with other Herbs, are never to be wanting in our Sallets, (as long as they may be had) being exceedingly wholſome and chearing the Spirits: The Roots are alſo boil'd and eaten Cold; much commended for Aged Perſons: This (as likewiſe Spinach) is us'd in Tarts, and ſerves alone for divers Sauces.
|Cibbols.||Vide Onions, Schœnopræſſon.|
15. Clary, Horminum, when tender not to be rejected, and in Omlets, made up with Cream, fried in ſweet Butter, are eaten with Sugar, Juice of Orange, or Limon.
16. Clavers, Aparine; the tender Winders, with young Nettle-Tops, are us'd in Lenten Pottages.
17. Corn-ſallet, Valerianella; loos'ning and refreſhing: The Tops and Leaves are a Sallet  of themſelves, ſeaſonably eaten with other Salleting, the whole Winter long, and early Spring: The French call them Salad de Preter, for their being generally eaten in Lent.
18. Cowſlips, Paralyſis: See Flowers.
19. Creſſes, Naſturtium, Garden Creſſes; to be monthly ſown: But above all the Indian, moderately hot, and aromatick, quicken the torpent Spirits, and purge the Brain, and are of ſingular effect againſt the Scorbute. Both the tender Leaves, Calices, Cappuchin Capers, and Flowers, are laudably mixed with the colder Plants. The Buds being Candy'd, are likewiſe us'd in Strewings all Winter. There is the Naſtur. Hybernicum commended alſo, and the vulgar Water-Creſs, proper in the Spring, all of the ſame Nature, tho' of different Degrees, and best for raw and cold Stomachs, but nouriſh little.
20. Cucumber, Cucumis; tho' very cold and moiſt, the moſt approved Sallet alone, or in Compoſition, of all the Vinaigrets, to ſharpen the Appetite, and cool the Liver, 16&c. if rightly  prepar'd; that is, by rectifying the vulgar Miſtake of altogether extracting the Juice, in which it ſhould rather be ſoak'd: Nor ought it to be over Oyl'd, too much abating of its grateful Acidity, and palling the Taſte from a contrariety of Particles: Let them therefore be pared, and cut in thin Slices, with a Clove or two of Onion to correct the Crudity, macerated in the Juice, often turn'd and moderately drain'd. Others prepare them, by ſhaking the Slices between two Diſhes, and dreſs them with very little Oyl, well beaten, and mingled with the Juice of Limon, Orange, or Vinegar, Salt and Pepper. Some again, (and indeed the moſt approv'd) eat them as ſoon as they are cut, retaining their Liquor, which being exhauſted (by the former Method) have nothing remaining in them to help the Concoction. Of old they 17boil'd the Cucumber, and paring off the Rind, eat them with Oyl, Vinegar, and Honey; Sugar not being ſo well known. Laſtly, the Pulp in Broth is greatly refreſhing, and may be mingl'd in moſt Sallets, without the leaſt damage, contrary to the common Opinion; it not being long, ſince Cucumber, however dreſs'd, was thought fit to be thrown away, being accounted  little better than Poyſon. Tavernier tells us, that in the Levant, if a Child cry for ſomething to Eat, they give it a raw Cucumber inſtead of Bread. The young ones may be boil'd in White-Wine. The ſmaller sort (known by the name of Gerckems) muriated with the Seeds of Dill, and the Mango Pickle are for the Winter.
21. Daiſy, Buphthalmum, Ox-Eye, or Bellis-major: The young Roots are frequently eaten by the Spaniards and Italians all the Spring till June.
22. Dandelion, Dens Leonis, Condrilla: Macerated in ſeveral Waters, to extract the bitterneſs; tho' ſomewhat opening, is very wholſome, and little inferior to Succory, Endive, &c. The French Country-People eat the Roots; and 'twas with this homely Sallet, the Good-Wife Hecate entertain'd Theſeus. See Sowthiſtle.
23. Dock, Oxylapathum, or ſharp-pointed Dock: Emollient, and tho' otherwiſe not for our Sallet, the Roots brewed in Ale or Beer, are excellent for the Scorbute.
Earth-Nuts, Bulbo-Caſtanum; (found in divers places of Surry, near Kingſton, and other  parts) the Rind par'd off, are eaten crude by Rustics, with a little Pepper; but are beſt boil'd like other Roots, or in Pottage rather, and are ſweet and nouriſhing.
24. Elder, Sambucus; The Flowers infus'd in Vinegar, grateful both to the Stomach and Taſte; attenuate thick and viſcid Humours; and tho' the Leaves are ſomewhat rank of Smell, and ſo not commendable in Sallet; they are otherwiſe (as indeed is the intire Shrub) of the most ſovereign Vertue; and the ſpring Buds and tender Leaves, excellently wholſome in Pottage at that Seaſon of the Year. See Flowers.
25. Endive, Endivium, Intubum Sativum; the largeſt, whiteſt, and tendereſt Leaves beſt boil'd, and leſs crude. It is naturally Cold, profitable for hot Stomachs; Inciſive and opening Obſtructions of the Liver: The curled is more delicate, being eaten alone, or in Compoſition, with the uſual Intinctus: It is alſo excellent being boil'd; the middle part of the Blanch'd-Stalk ſeparated, eats firm, and the ampler Leaves by many perferr'd before Lettuce. See Succory.
Eſchalot. See Onions.
 26. Fennel, Fœniculum: The ſweeteſt of Bolognia: Aromatick, hot, and dry; expels Wind, ſharpens the Sight, and recreates the Brain; eſpecially the tender Umbella and Seed-Pods. The Stalks are to be peel'd when young, and then dreſs'd like Sellery. The tender Tufts and Leaves emerging, being minc'd, are eaten alone with Vinegar, or Oyl, and Pepper, and to correct the colder Materials, enter properly into Compoſition. The Italians eat the blanch'd Stalk (which they call Cartucci) all Winter long. There is a very ſmall Green-Worm, which ſometimes lodges in the Stemm of this Plant, which is to be taken out, as the Red one in that of Sellery.
27. Flowers, Flores; chiefly of the Aromatick Eſculents and Plants are preferrable, as generally endow'd with the Vertues of their Simples, in a more intenſe degree; and may therefore be eaten alone in their proper Vehicles, or Compoſition with other Salleting, ſprinkl'd among them; But give a more palatable Reliſh, being Infus'd in Vinegar; Eſpecially thoſe of the Clove-Gillyflower, Elder, Orange, Cowſlip, Rosemary, Arch-Angel, Sage, Naſturtium Indicum, &c. Some of them are Pickl'd, and divers of them make alſo very pleasant and wholſome Theas, as do likewiſe the Wild Time, Bugloſſ, Mint, &c.
 28. Garlick, Allium; dry towards Exceſs; and tho' both by Spaniards and Italians, and the more Southern People, familiarly eaten, with almoſt every thing, and eſteem'd of such ſigular Vertue to help Conception, and thought a Charm againſt all Infection and Poyſon (by which it has obtain'd the Name of the Country-man's Theriacle) we yet think it more proper for our Northern Ruſtics, especially living in Uliginous and moiſt places, or ſuch as uſe the Sea: Whilſt we abſolutely forbid it entrance into our Salleting, by reaſon of its intolerable Rankneſs, and which made it ſo deteſted of old; that the eating of it was (as we read) part of the Puniſhment for ſuch as had committed the horrid'ſt Crimes. To be ſure, 'tis not for Ladies Palats, nor thoſe who court them, farther than to permit a light touch on the Diſh, with a Clove thereof, much better ſupply'd by the gentler Roccombo.
Note, That in Spain they ſometimes eat it boil'd, which taming its fierceneſs, turns it into Nouriſhment, or rather Medicine.
Ginny-Pepper, Capſicum. See Pepper.
29. Goats-beard, Trago-pogon: The Root is excellent even in Sallet, and very Nutritive,  exceeding profitable for the Breaſt, and may be ſtew'd and dreſs'd as Scorzonera.
30. Hops, Lupulus: Hot and moiſt, rather Medicinal, than fit for Sallet; the Buds and young Tendrels excepted, which may be eaten raw; but more conveniently being boil'd, and cold like Aſparagus: They are Diuretic; depurate the Blood, and open Obſtructions.
31. Hyſſop, Hyſſopus; Thymus Capitatus Creticus; Majoran, Mary-gold, &c. as all hot, ſpicy Aromatics, (commonly growing in Kitchin-Gardens) are of Faculty to Comfort, and ſtrengthen; prevalent againſt Melancoly and Phlegm; Plants, like theſe, going under the Names of Pot Herbs, are much more proper for Broths and Decoctions, than the tender Sallet: Yet the Tops and Flowers reduc'd to Powder, are by ſome reſerv'd for Strewings, upon the colder Ingredients; communicating no ungrateful Fragrancy.
32. Jack-by-the-Hedge, Alliaria, or Sauce-alone; has many Medicinal Properties, and is eaten as other Sallets, eſpecially by Country People, growing wild under their Banks and Hedges.
33. Leeks, and Cibbols, Porrum; hot, and of Vertue Prolifick, ſince Latona, the Mother of Appolo long'd after them: The Welch, who eat them much, are obſerv'd to be very fruitful: They are alſo friendly to the Lungs and Stomach, being ſod in Milk; a few therefore of the ſlender and green Summities, a little ſhred, do not amiſs in Compoſition. See Onion.
34. Lettuce, Lactuca: Tho' by Metaphor call'd 18Mortuorum Cibi, (to ſay nothing of 19Adonis and his ſad Miſtriſs) by reason of its Soporiferous quality, ever was, and ſtill continues the principal Foundation of the univerſal Tribe of Sallets; which is to Cool and Refreſh, beſides its other Properties: And therefore in ſuch high eſteem with the Ancients; that divers of the Valerian Family, dignify'd and enobled their Name with that of Lactucinii.
It is indeed of Nature more cold and moiſt than any of the reſt; yet leſs aſtringent, and ſo harmleſs that it may ſafely be eaten raw in Fevers; for it allays Heat, bridles Choler,  extinguiſhes Thirſt, excites Appetite, kindly Nouriſhes, and above all repreſſes Vapours, conciliates Sleep, mitigates Pain; beſides the effect it has upon the Morals, Temperance and Chaſtity. Galen (whoſe beloved Sallet it was) from its pinguid, ſubdulcid and agreeable Nature, ſays it breeds the moſt laudable Blood. No marvel then that they were by the Ancients called Sana, by way of eminency, and ſo highly valu'd by the great 20Auguſtus, that attributing his Recovery of a dangerous Sickneſs to them, 'tis reported, he erected a Statue, and built an Altar to this noble Plant. And that the moſt abſtemious and excellent Emperor 21Tacitus (ſpending almoſt nothing at his frugal Table in other Dainties) was yet ſo great a Friend to Lettuce, that he was us'd to ſay of his Prodigality, Somnum ſe mercari illa ſumptus effuſione. How it was celebrated by Galen we have heard; how he us'd it he tells himſelf; namely, beginning with Lettuce in his younger Days, and concluding with it when he grew old, and that to his great advantage. In a word, we meet with nothing among all our crude Materials  and Sallet ſtore, ſo proper to mingle with any of the reſt, nor ſo wholſome to be eaten alone, or in Compoſition, moderately, and with the uſual Oxelœum of Vinegar, Pepper, and Oyl, &c. which laſt does not ſo perfectly agree with the Alphange, to which the Juice of Orange, or Limon and Sugar is more deſirable: Ariſtoxenus is reported to have irrigated his Lettuce-Beds with an Oinomelite, or mixture of Wine and Honey: And certainly 'tis not for nothing that our Garden-Lovers, and Brothers of the Sallet, have been ſo exceedingly Induſtrious to cultivate this Noble Plant, and multiply its Species; for to name a few in preſent uſe: We have the Alphange of Montpelier, criſp and delicate; the Arabic; Ambervelleres; Belgrade, Cabbage, Capuchin, Coſs-Lettuce, Curl'd; the Genoa (laſting all the Winter) the Imperial, Lambs, or Agnine, and Lobbs or Lop-Lettuces. The French Minion a dwarf kind: The Oak-Leaf, Paſſion, Roman, Shell, and Sileſian, hard and crimp (eſteemed of the beſt and rareſt) with divers more: And here let it be noted, that beſides three or four ſorts of this Plant, and ſome few of the reſt, there was within our remembrance, rarely any other Salleting ſerv'd up to the beſt Tables; with unblanch'd Endive, Succory, Purſelan, (and indeed little other  variety) Sugar and Vinegar being the conſtant Vehicles (without Oyl) but now Sugar is almoſt wholly baniſh'd from all, except the more effeminate Palates, as too much palling, and taking from the grateful Acid now in uſe, tho' otherwiſe not totally to be reproved: Lettuce boil'd and Condited is ſometimes ſpoken of.
35. Limon, Limonia, citrea mala; exceedingly refreſhing, Cordial, &c. The Pulp being blended with the Juice, ſecluding the over-ſweet or bitter. See Orange.
36. Mallow, Malva; the curl'd, emollient, and friendly to the Ventricle, and ſo rather Medicinal; yet may the Tops, well boil'd, be admitted, and the reſt (tho' out of uſe at preſent) was taken by the Poets for all Sallets in general. Pythagoras held Malvæ folium Sanctiſimum; and we find Epimenides in 22Plato at his Mallows and Aſphodel; and indeed it was of old the firſt Diſh at Table: The Romans had it alſo in deliciis, 23Malvæ ſalubres corpori, approved by 24Galen and 25Dioſcorides; namely the Garden-Mallow, by others the Wild; but I  think both proper rather for the Pot, than Sallet. Nonius ſuppoſes the tall Roſea, Arboreſcent Holi-hocks, that bears the broad Flower, for the beſt, and very 26Laxative; but by reaſon of their clammineſs and Lentor, baniſhed from our Sallet, tho' by ſome commended and eaten with Oyl and Vinegar, and ſome with Butter.
Mercury, Bonus Henricus, Engliſh Mercury, or Lapathum Unctuoſum. See Blitum.
37. Melon, Melo; to have been reckon'd rather among Fruits; and tho' an uſual Ingredient in our Sallet; yet for its tranſcendent delicacy and flavor, cooling and exhilarating Nature (if ſweet, dry, weighty, and well-fed) not only ſuperior all the Gourd-kind, but Paragon with the nobleſt Productions of the Garden. Joſ. Scaliger and Caſaubon, think our Melon unknown to the Ancients, (which others contradict) as yet under the name of Cucumers:  But he who reads how artificially they were Cultivated, rais'd under Glaſſes, and expos'd to the hot Sun, (for Tiberius) cannot well doubt of their being the ſame with ours.
There is alſo a Winter-Melon, large and with black Seeds, exceedingly Cooling, brought us from abroad, and the hotter Climates, where they drink Water after eating Melons; but in the colder (after all diſpute) Wine is judg'd the better: That it has indeed by ſome been accus'd as apt to corrupt in the Stomach (as do all things elſe eaten in exceſs) is not deny'd: But a perfect good Melon is certainly as harmleſs a Fruit as any whatſoever; and may ſafely be mingl'd with Sallet, in Pulp or Slices, or more properly eaten by it ſelf, with a little Salt and Pepper; for a Melon which requires Sugar to commend it, wants of Perfection. Note, That this Fruit was very rarely cultivated in England, ſo as to bring it to Maturity, till Sir Geo. Gardner came out of Spain. I my ſelf remembring, when an ordinary Melon would have been ſold for five or ſix Shillings. The ſmall unripe Fruit, when the others are paſt, may be Pickl'd with Mango, and are very delicate.
38. Mint, Mentha; the Anguſtifolia Spicata, Spear-Mint; dry and warm, very fragrant, a  little preſs'd, is friendly to the weak Stomach, and powerful againſt all Nervous Crudities: The gentler Tops of the Orange-Mint, enter well into our Compoſition, or are grateful alone (as are alſo the other ſorts) with the Juice of Orange, and a little Sugar.
39. Muſhroms, Fungi; By the 27Orator call'd Terræ, by Porphyry Deorum filii, without Seed (as produc'd by the Midwifry of Autumnal Thunder-Storms, portending the Miſchief they cauſe) by the French, Champignons, with all the Species of the Boletus, &c. for being, as ſome hold, neither Root, Herb, Flower, nor Fruit, nor to be eaten crude; ſhould be therefore baniſh'd entry into our Sallet, were I to order the Compoſition; however ſo highly contended for by many, as the very principal and top of all the reſt; whilſt I think them tolerable only (at leaſt in this Climate) if being freſh and skilfully choſen, they are accommodated with the niceſt Care and Circumſpection; generally reported to have ſomething malignant and noxious in them: Nor without cauſe; from the many ſad Examples, frequent Miſchiefs, and funeſt Accidents they have produc'd, not only  to particular Perſons, but whole Families: Exalted indeed they were to the ſecond Courſe of the Cæsarian Tables, with the noble Title Βρωμα θεων, a Dainty fit for the Gods alone; to whom they ſent the Emperor 28Claudius, as they have many ſince, to the other World. But he that reads how 29Seneca deplores his loſt Friend, that brave Commander Annæus Serenus, and ſeveral other gallant Perſons with him, who all of them periſh'd at the same Repaſt; would be apt to ask with the 30Naturaliſt (ſpeaking of this ſuſpicious Dainty) Quæ voluptas tanta ancipitis cibi? and who indeed would hazard it? So true is that of the Poet; He that eats Muſhroms, many time Nil amplius edit, eats no more perhaps all his Life after. What other deterring Epithets are given for our Caution, Βαρη πνιγοεντα μυκητων, heavy and choaking. (Athenæus reporting of the Poet Euripides's, finding a Woman and her three Children ſtrangl'd by eating of them) one would think ſufficient warning.
Among theſe comes in the Fungus Reticularis, to be found about London, as at Fulham and other places; whilſt at no ſmall charge we  ſend for them into France; as we alſo do for Trufles, Pig-nuts, and other ſubterraneous Tubera, which in Italy they fry in Oyl, and eat with Pepper: They are commonly diſcovered by a Naſute Swine purpoſely brought up; being of a Cheſsnut Colour, and heady Smell, and not ſeldom found in England, particularly in a Park of my Lord Cotton's at Ruſhton or Rusbery in Northampton-ſhire, and doubtleſs in other 31places too were they ſought after. How these rank and provocative Excreſcences are to be 32treated (of themſelves inſipid enough, and only famous for their kindly taking any Pickle or Conditure) that they may do the leſs Miſchief we might here ſet down. But ſince there be ſo many ways of Dreſſing them, that I can incourage none to uſe them, for Reaſons given (beſides that they do not at all concern our ſafer and innocent Sallet Furniture) I forbear it; and referr thoſe who long after this beloved Ragout, and other Voluptuaria Venena (as Seneca calls them) to what our Learned Dr. Lyſter 33 ſays of the many Venomous Inſects harbouring and corrupting in a new found-out Species of Muſhroms had lately in deliciis.  Thoſe, in the mean time, which are eſteemed beſt, and leſs pernicious, (of which ſee the Appendix) are ſuch as riſe in rich, airy, and dry 34Paſture-Grounds; growing on the Staff or Pedicule of about an Inch thick and high; moderately Swelling (Target-like) round and firm, being underneath of a pale ſaffronish hue, curiouſly radiated in parallel Lines and Edges, which becoming either Yellow, Orange, or Black, are to be rejected: But beſides what the Harveſt-Months produce, they are likewiſe rais'd 35Artificially; as at Naples in their Wine-Cellars, upon an heap of rank Earth, heaped upon a certain ſuppoſed Stone, but in truth, (as the curious and noble 36Peireſky tells us, he found to be) nothing but an heap of old Fungus's, reduc'd and compacted to a ſtony hardness, upon which they lay Earth, and ſprinkle it with warm Water, in which Muſhroms have been ſteeped. And in France, by making an hot Bed of Aſſes-Dung, and when the heat is in Temper, watering it (as above) well impregnated with the Parings and Offals of refuſe  Fungus's; and ſuch a Bed will laſt two or three Years, and ſometimes our common Melon-Beds afford them, beſides other Experiments.
40. Muſtard, Sinapi; exceeding hot and mordicant, not only in the Seed but Leaf alſo; eſpecially in Seedling young Plants, like thoſe of Radiſhes (newly peeping out of the Bed) is of incomparable effect to quicken and revive the Spirits; ſtrengthening the Memory, expelling heavineſs, preventing the Vertiginous Palſie, and is a laudable Cephalick. Beſides it is an approv'd Antiſcorbutick; aids Concoction, cuts and diſſipates Phlegmatick Humours. In ſhort, 'tis the moſt noble Embamma, and ſo neceſſary an Ingredient to all cold and raw Salleting, that it is very rarely, if at all, to be left out. In Italy in making Muſtard, they mingle Limon and Orange-Peel, with the Seeds. How the beſt is made, ſee hereafter.
Naſturtium Indicum. See Creſſes.
41. Nettles, Urtica; Hot, dry, Diuretic, Solvent; purifies the Blood: The Buds, and very tender Cimae, a little bruiſed, are by ſome eaten raw, by others boil'd, eſpecially in Spring-Pottage, with other Herbs.
42. Onion, Cepa, Porrum; the beſt are ſuch as are brought us out of Spain, whence they of St. Omers had them, and ſome that have weigh'd eight Pounds. Chooſe therefore the large, round, white, and thin Skin'd. Being eaten crude and alone with Oyl, Vinegar, and Pepper, we own them in Sallet, not ſo hot as Garlick, nor at all ſo rank: Boil'd, they give a kindly reliſh; raise Appetite, corroborate the Stomach, cut Phlegm, and profit the Aſthmatical: But eaten in exceſs, are ſaid to offend the Head and Eyes, unleſs Edulcorated with a gentle maceration. In the mean time, as to their being noxious to the Sight, is imputable only to the Vapour riſing from the raw Onion, when peeled, which ſome commend for its purging and quickning that Senſe. How they are us'd in Pottage, boil'd in Milk, stew'd, &c. concerns the Kitchin. In our cold Sallet we ſupply them with the Porrum Sectile, Tops of Leeks, and Eſchalots (Aſcalonia) of guſt more exalted, yet not to the degree of Garlick. Or (by what of later uſe is much preferr'd) with a Seed or two of Raccombo, of a yet milder and delicate nature, which by rubbing the Diſh only, imparts its Vertue agreeably enough. In Italy they frequently make a Sallet of Scalions, Cives, and Chibbols only ſeaſon'd with Oyl and Pepper;  and an honeſt laborious Country-man, with good Bread, Salt, and a little Parſley, will make a contented Meal with a roaſted Onion. How this noble Bulb was deified in 37Egypt we are told, and that whilſt they were building the Pyramids, there was ſpent in this Root 38Ninety Tun of Gold among the Workmen. So luſhious and tempting it ſeems they were, that as whole Nations have ſubſiſted on them alone; ſo the Iſraelites were ready to return to Slavery and Brick-making for the love of them. Indeed Hecamedes we find preſents them to Patroclus, in Homer, as a Regalo; But certainly we are either miſtaken in the Species (which ſome will have to be Melons) or uſe Poetick Licence, when we ſo highly magnify them.
43. Orach, Atriplex: Is cooling, allays the Pituit Humor: Being ſet over the Fire, neither this, nor Lettuce, needs any other Water than their own moiſture to boil them in, without Expreſſion: The tender Leaves are mingl'd with other cold Salleting; but 'tis better in Pottage. See Blitum.
44. Orange, Arantiæ (Malum aureum) Moderately dry, cooling, and inciſive; ſharpens Appetite, exceedingly refreſhes and reſists Putrefaction: We ſpeak of the Sub acid; the ſweet and bitter Orange being of no uſe in our Sallet. The Limon is ſomewhat more acute, cooling and extinguiſhing Thirſt; of all the Οξυβαφα the best ſuccedaneum to Vinegar. The very Spoils and Rinds of Orange and Limon being ſhred and ſprinkl'd among the other Herbs, correct the Acrimony. But they are the tender Seedlings from the Hot-Bed, which impart an Aromatic exceedingly grateful to the Stomach. Vide Limon.
45. Parſnep, Paſtinaca, Carrot: firſt boil'd, being cold, is of it ſelf a Winter-Sallet, eaten with Oyl, Vinegar, &c. and having ſomething of Spicy, is by ſome, thought more nouriſhing than the Turnep.
46. Peaſe, Piſum: the Pod of the Sugar-Peaſe, when firſt beginning to appear, with the Husk and Tendrels, affording a pretty Acid, enter into the Compoſition, as do thoſe of Hops and the Vine.
47. Peper, Piper, hot and dry in a high degree; of approv'd Vertue against all flatulency  proceeding from cold and phlegmatic Conſtitutions, and generally all Crudities whatſoever; and therefore for being of univerſal uſe to correct and temper the cooler Herbs, and ſuch as abound in moiſture; It is a never to be omitted Ingredient of our Sallets; provided it be not too minutely beaten (as oft we find it) to an almoſt impalpable Duſt, which is very pernicious and frequently adheres and ſticks in the folds of the Stomach, where, inſtead of promoting Concoction, it often cauſes a Cardialgium, and fires the Blood: It ſhould therefore be groſly contus'd only.
Indian Capſicum, ſuperlatively hot and burning, is yet by the Africans eaten with Salt and Vinegar by it ſelf, as an uſual Condiment; but wou'd be of dangerous conſequence with us; being ſo much more of an acrimonious and terribly biting quality, which by Art and Mixture is notwithſtanding render'd not only ſafe, but very agreeable in our Sallet.
Take the Pods, and dry them well in a Pan; and when they are become ſufficiently hard, cut them into ſmall pieces, and ſtamp 'em in a Mortar to duſt: To each Ounce of which add a Pound of Wheat-flour, fermented with a little Levain: Kneed and make them into Cakes or Loaves cut long-wiſe, in ſhape of Naples-Biſcuit.  Theſe Re-bake a ſecond time, till they are Stone-hard: Pound them again as before, and ferce it through a fine Sieve, for a very proper Seaſoning, inſtead of vulgar Peper. The Mordicancy thus allay'd, be ſure to make the Mortar very clean, after having beaten Indian Capſicum, before you ſtamp any thing in it elſe. The green Husks, or firſt peeping Buds of the Walnut-Tree, dry'd to Powder, ſerve for Peper in ſome places, and ſo do Myrtle-berries.
48. Perſley, Petroſelinum, or Apium hortenſe; being hot and dry, opens Obſtructions, is very Diuretic, yet nouriſhing, edulcorated in ſhifted warm Water (the Roots eſpecially) but of leſs Vertue than Alexanders; nor ſo convenient in our crude Sallet, as when decocted on a Medicinal Account. Some few tops of the tender Leaves may yet be admitted; tho' it was of old, we read, never brought to the Table at all, as ſacred to Oblivium and the Defunct. In the mean time, there being nothing more proper for Stuffing, (Farces) and other Sauces, we conſign it to the Olitories. Note, that Perſley is not ſo hurtful to the Eyes as is reported. See Sellery.
49. Pimpernel, Pimpinella; eaten by the French and Italians, is our common Burnet; of  ſo chearing and exhilarating a quality, and ſo generally commended, as (giving it admittance into all Sallets) 'tis paſs'd into a Proverb:
L'Inſalata non è buon, ne bella
Ove non è la Pimpinella.
But a freſh ſprig in Wine, recommends it to us as its moſt genuine Element.
50. Purslain, Portulaca; eſpecially the Golden whilſt tender, next the Seed-leaves, with the young Stalks, being eminently moiſt and cooling, quickens Appetite, aſſwages Thirſt, and is very profitable for hot and Bilious Tempers, as well as Sanguine, and generally entertain'd in all our Sallets, mingled with the hotter Herbs: Tis likewiſe familiarly eaten alone with Oyl and Vinegar; but with moderation, as having been ſometimes found to corrupt in the Stomach, which being Pickl'd 'tis not ſo apt to do. Some eat it cold, after it has been boil'd, which Dr. Muffet would have in Wine, for Nouriſhment.
The Shrub Halimus, is a ſort of Sea-Purſlain: The newly peeping Leaves (tho' rarely us'd) afford a no unpleaſant Acidule, even during winter, if it prove not too ſevere.
 Purſlain is accus'd for being hurtful to the Teeth, if too much eaten.
51. Radiſh, Raphanus. Albeit rather Medicinal, than ſo commendably accompanying our Sallets (wherein they often ſlice the larger Roots) are much inferior to the young Seedling Leaves and Roots; raiſed on the 39Monthly Hot-Bed, almoſt the whole Year round, affording a very grateful mordacity, and ſufficiently attempers the cooler Ingredients: The bigger Roots (ſo much desir'd) ſhould be ſuch as being tranſparent, eat ſhort and quick, without ſtringineſs, and not too biting. Theſe are eaten alone with Salt only, as carrying their Peper in them; and were indeed by Dioſcorides and Pliny celebrated above all Roots whatſoever; inſomuch as in the Delphic Temple, there was Raphanus ex auro dicatus, a Radish of ſolid Gold; and 'tis ſaid of Moſchius, that he wrote a whole Volume in their praiſe. Notwithſtanding all which, I am ſure, the great 40Hippocrates utterly condemns them, as Vitioſoe, innatantes ac aegre concoctiles. And the Naturaliſt calls it Cibus Illiberalis, fitter for Ruſtics than Gentlemens  Tables. And indeed (beſides that they decay the Teeth) experience tells us, that as the Prince of Phyſicians writes, It is hard of Digeſtion, Inimicous to the Stomach, cauſing nauſeous Eructations, and ſometimes Vomiting, tho' otherwiſe Diuretic, and thought to repel the Vapours of Wine, when the Wits were at their genial Club. Dioſcorides and 41Galen differ about their Eating; One preſcribes it before Meals, the latter for after. Some macerate the young Roots in warm milk, to render them more Nouriſhing.
There is a Raphanus ruſticanus, the Spaniſh black Horſe Radish, of a hotter quality, and not ſo friendly to the Head; but a notable Antiſcorbutic, which may be eaten all the Winter, and on that account an excellent Ingredient in the Compoſition of Muſtard; as are alſo the thin Shavings, mingled with our cold Herbs. And now before I have done with this Root, for an excellent and univerſal Condiment. Take Horſe-Radiſh, whilſt newly drawn out of the Earth, otherwiſe laid to ſteep in Water a competent time; then grate it on a Grater which has no bottom, that ſo it may paſs thro', like a Mucilage, into a Diſh of Earthen Ware: This  temper'd with Vinegar, in which a little Sugar has been diſſolv'd, you have a Sauce ſupplying Muſtard to the Sallet, and ſerving likewiſe for any Diſh beſides.
52. Rampion, Rapunculus, or the Eſculent Campanula: The tender Roots eaten in the Spring, like thoſe of Radiſhes, but much more Nouriſhing.
53. Rocket, Eruca Spaniſh; hot and dry, to be qualified with Lettuce, Purcelain, and the reſt, &c. See Tarragon.
Roccombo. See Onions.
54. Roſemary, Roſmarinus; Soverainly Cephalic, and for the Memory, Sight, and Nerves, incomparable: And tho' not us'd in the Leaf with our Sallet furniture, yet the Flowers, a little bitter, are always welcome in Vinegar; but above all, a freſh Sprig or two in a Glaſs of Wine. See Flowers.
55. Sage, Salvia; hot and dry. The tops of the Red, well pick'd and waſh'd (being often defil'd with Venomous Slime, and almoſt imperceptible Inſects) with the Flowers, retain all  the noble Properties of the other hot Plants; more eſpecially for the Head, Memory, Eyes, and all Paralytical Affections. In ſhort, 'tis a Plant endu'd with ſo many and wonderful Properties, as that the aſſiduous uſe of it is ſaid to render Men Immortal: We cannot therefore but allow the tender Summities of the young Leaves; but principally the Flowers in our cold Sallet; yet ſo as not to domineer.
Salſifax, Scorzonera. See Vipergraſs.
56. Sampier, Crithmum: That growing on the Sea-Cliffs (as about Dover, &c.) not only Pickl'd, but crude and cold, when young and tender (and ſuch as we may Cultivate, and have in our Kitchin-Gardens, almoſt the Year round) is in my Opinion, for its Aromatic, and other excellent Vertues and Effects againſt the Spleen, Cleanſing the Paſſages, ſharpning Appetite, &c. ſo far preferrable to moſt of our hotter Herbs, and Sallet-Ingredients, that I have long wonder'd, it has not been long ſince propagated in the Potagere, as it is in France; from whence I have often receiv'd the Seeds, which have proſper'd better, and more kindly with me, than what comes from our own Coaſts: It does not indeed Pickle ſo well, as  being of a more tender Stalk and Leaf: But in all other reſpects for compoſing Sallets, it has nothing like it.
57. Scalions, Aſcalonia, Cepæ; The French call them Appetites, which it notably quickens and ſtirs up: Corrects Crudities, and promotes Concoction. The Italians ſteep them in Water, mince, and eat them cold with Oyl, Vinegar, Salt, &c.
58. Scurvy-graſs, Cochlearia, of the Garden, but eſpecially that of the Sea, is ſharp, biting, and hot; of Nature like Naſturtium, prevalent in the Scorbute. A few of the tender Leaves may be admitted in our Compoſition. See Naſturtium Indicum.
59. Sellery, Apium Italicum, (and of the Petroſeline Family) was formerly a ſtranger with us (nor very long ſince in Italy) is an hot and more generous ſort of Macedonian Perſley, or Smallage. The tender Leaves of the Blancht Stalk do well in our Sallet, as likewiſe the ſlices of the whiten'd Stems, which being crimp and ſhort, firſt peel'd and ſlit long wiſe, are eaten with Oyl, Vinegar, Salt, and Peper; and for its high and grateful Taste, is ever plac'd in the  middle of the Grand Sallet, at our Great Mens Tables, and Prætors Feaſts, as the Grace of the whole Board. Caution is to be given of a ſmall red Worm, often lurking in theſe Stalks, as does the green in Fennil.
Shallots. See Onion.
60. Skirrets, Siſarum; hot and moiſt, corroborating, and good for the Stomach, exceedingly nouriſhing, wholſome and delicate; of all the Root-kind, not ſubject to be Windy, and ſo valued by the Emperor Tiberius, that he accepted them for Tribute.
This excellent Root is ſeldom eaten raw; but being boil'd, ſtew'd, roaſted under the Embers, bak'd in Pies, whole, ſliced, or in pulp, is very acceptable to all Palates. 'Tis reported they were heretofore ſomething bitter; See what Culture and Education effects!
61. Sorrel, Acetoſa: of which there are divers kinds. The French Acetocella, with the round Leaf, growing plentifully in the North of England; Roman Oxalis; the broad German, &c. but the beſt is of Green-Land: by nature cold, Abſterſive, Acid, ſharpning Appetite, aſſwages Heat, cools the Liver, ſtrengthens the Heart;  is an Antiſcorbutic, reſiſting Putrefaction, and imparting ſo grateful a quickneſs to the reſt, as ſupplies the want of Orange, Limon, and other Omphacia, and therefore never to be excluded. Vide Wood-Sorrel.
62. Sow-thiſtle, Sonchus; of the Intybus-kind. Galen was us'd to eat it as Lettuce; exceedingly welcome to the late Morocco. Ambaſſador and his Retinue.
63. Sparagus, Aſparagus (ab Aſperitate) temperately hot, and moiſt; Cordial, Diuretic, eaſie of Digeſtion, and next to Fleſh, nothing more nourishing, as Sim. Sethius, an excellent Phyſician holds. They are ſometimes, but very ſeldom, eaten raw with Oyl, and Vinegar; but with more delicacy (the bitterneſs firſt exhauſted) being ſo ſpeedily boil'd, as not to loſe the verdure and agreeable tenderneſs; which is done by letting the Water boil, before you put them in. I do not eſteem the Dutch great and larger ſort (eſpecially rais'd by the rankneſs of the Beds) ſo ſweet and agreeable, as thoſe of a moderate ſize.
64. Spinach, Spinachia: of old not us'd in Sallets, and the oftner kept out the better; I  ſpeak of the crude: But being boil'd to a Pult, and without other Water than its own moiſture, is a moſt excellent Condiment with Butter, Vinegar, or Limon, for almoſt all ſorts of boil'd Fleſh, and may accompany a Sick Man's Diet. 'Tis Laxative and Emollient, and therefore profitable for the Aged, and (tho' by original a Spaniard) may be had at almoſt any Season, and in all places.
Stone-Crop, Sedum Minus. See Trick-Madame.
65. Succory, Cichorium, an Intube; erratic and wild, with a narrow dark Leaf, different from the Sative, tho' probably by culture only; and for being very bitter, a little edulcorated with Sugar and Vinegar, is by ſome eaten in the Summer, and more grateful to the Stomach than the Palate. See Endive.
66. Tansy, Tanacetum; hot and cleanſing; but in regard of its domineering reliſh, ſparingly mixt with our cold Sallet, and much fitter (tho' in very ſmall quantity) for the Pan, being qualified with the Juices of other freſh Herbs, Spinach, Green Corn, Violet, Primrose-Leaves, &c. at entrance of the Spring, and then  fried browniſh, is eaten hot with the Juice of Orange and Sugar, as one of the moſt agreeable of all the boil'd Herbaceous Diſhes.
67. Tarragon, Draco Herba, of Spaniſh Extraction; hot and ſpicy: The Tops and young Shoots, like thoſe of Rochet, never to be ſecluded our Compoſition, eſpecially where there is much Lettuce. 'Tis highly cordial and friendly to the Head, Heart, Liver, correcting the weakneſs of the Ventricle, &c.
68. Thiſtle, Carduus Mariæ; our Lady's milky or dappl'd Thiſtle, diſarm'd of its Prickles, is worth eſteem: The young Stalk about May, being peel'd and ſoak'd in Water, to extract the bitterneſs, boil'd or raw, is a very wholſome Sallet, eaten with Oyl, Salt, and Peper; ſome eat them ſodden in proper Broath, or bak'd in Pies, like the Artichoak; but the tender Stalk boil'd or fry'd, ſome preferr; both Nouriſhing and Reſtorative.
69. Trick-Madame, Sedum minus, Stone-Crop; is cooling and moiſt, grateful to the Stomach. The Cimata and Tops, when young and tender, dreſs'd as Purſelane, is a frequent Ingredient in our cold Sallet.
70. Turnep, Rapum; moderately hot and moiſt: Napus; the long Navet is certainly the moſt delicate of them, and best Nouriſhing. Pliny ſpeaks of no fewer than ſix ſorts, and of ſeveral Colours; ſome of which were ſuspected to be artificially tinged. But with us, the yellow is preferr'd; by others the red Bohemian. But of whatever kind, being ſown upon the Hot-bed, and no bigger than ſeedling Radiſh, they do excellently in Compoſition; as do alſo the Stalks of the common Turnep, when firſt beginning to Bud.
And here ſhould not be forgotten, that wholſome, as well as agreeable ſort of Bread, we are 42taught to make; and of which we have eaten at the greateſt Perſons Tables, hardly to be distinguiſh'd from the beſt of Wheat.
Let the Turneps firſt be peel'd, and boil'd in Water till ſoft and tender; then ſtrongly preſſing out the Juice, mix them together, and when dry (beaten or pounded very fine) with their weight of Wheat-Meal, ſeaſon it as you do other Bread, and knead it up; then letting the Dough remain a little to ferment, faſhion the Paſte into Loaves, and bake it like common Bread.
 Some roaſt Turneps in a Paper under the Embers, and eat them with Sugar and Butter.
71. Vine, Vitis, the Capreols, Tendrels, and Claſpers (like thoſe of the Hop, &c.) whilſt very young, have an agreeable Acid, which may be eaten alone, or with other Sallet.
72. Viper-graſs, Tragopogon, Scorzonera, Salſifex, &c. tho' Medicinal, and excellent againſt the Palpitation of the Heart, Faintings, Obſtruction of the Bowels, &c. are beſides a very ſweet and pleaſant Sallet; being laid to ſoak out the bitterneſs, then peel'd, may be eaten raw, or Condited; but beſt of all ſtew'd with Marrow, Spice, Wine, &c. as Artichoak, Skirrets, &c. ſliced or whole. They likewiſe may bake, fry, or boil them; a more excellent Root there is hardly growing.
73. Wood-Sorrel, Trifolium acetoſum, or Alleluja, of the nature of other Sorrels.
To all which might we add ſundry more, formerly had in deliciis, ſince grown obſolete or quite neglected with us: As among the nobleſt Bulbs, that of the Tulip; a Root of which has been valued not to eat, but for the Flower (and yet eaten by miſtake) at more than an hundred  Pounds. The young freſh Bulbs are ſweet and high of taſte. The Aſphodil or Daffodil; a Sallet ſo rare in Heſiod's Days, that Lobel thinks it the Parſnep, tho' not at all like it; however it was (with the Mallow) taken anciently for any Edule-Root.
The Ornithogalons roaſted, as they do Cheſtnuts, are eaten by the Italians, the wild yellow eſpecially, with Oyl, Vinegar, and Peper. And ſo the ſmall tuberous Roots of Gramen Amygdaloſum; which they alſo roaſt, and make an Emulſion of, to uſe in Broaths as a great Reſtorative. The Oxylapathum, us'd of old; in the time of Galen was eaten frequently. As alſo Dracontium, with the Mordicant Arum Theophraſti, which Dodonæus teaches how to Dreſs. Nay, divers of the Satyrions, which ſome condited with Sugar, others boil'd in Milk for a great Nouriſher, now diſcarded. But what think we of the Cicuta, which there are who reckon among Sallet Herbs? But whatever it is in any other Country, 'tis certainly Mortiferous in ours. To these add the Viola Matronalis, Radix Lunaria, &c. nay, the Green Poppy, by most accounted among the deadly Poyſons: How cautious then ought our Sallet-Gatherers to be, in reading ancient Authors; leſt they happen to be impos'd on, where they treat of  Plants, that are familiarly eaten in other Countries, and among other Nations and People of more robuſt and ſtrong conſtitutions? beſsides the hazard of being miſtaken in the Names of divers Simples, not as yet fully agreed upon among the Learned in Botany.
There are beſsides ſeveral remaining, which tho' Abdicated here with us, find Entertainment ſtill in Foreign Countries: As the large Heliotrope and Sun-flower (e're it comes to expand, and ſhew its golden Face) which being dreſs'd as the Artichoak, is eaten for a dainty. This I add as a new Diſcovery. I once made Macaroons with the ripe blanch'd Seeds, but the Turpentine did ſo domineer over all, that it did not anſwer expectation. The Radix Perſonata mounting with their young Heads, Lyſimachia ſiliquoſa glabra minor, when freſh and tender, begins to come into the Sallet-Tribe. The pale whiter Popy, is eaten by the Genoueſe. By the Spaniards, the tops of Wormwood with Oyl alone, and without ſo much as Bread; profitable indeed to the Stomach, but offenſive to the Head; As is alſo Coriander and Rue, which Galen was accuſtom'd to eat raw, and by it ſelf, with Oyl and Salt, as exceedingly grateful, as well as wholſome, and of great vertue againſt Infection. Pliny, I remember, reports it to be  of ſuch effect for the Preſervation of Sight; that the Painters of his Time, us'd to devour a great quantity of it. And it is ſtill by the Italians frequently mingled among their Sallets. The Lapatha Perſonata (common Burdock) comes now and then to the beſt Tables, about April, and when young, before the Burrs and Clots appear, being ſtrip'd, and the bitterneſs ſoaked out, treated as the Chardoon, is eaten in Poiverade; Some alſo boil them. More might here be reckon'd up, but theſe may ſuffice; ſince as we find ſome are left off, and gone out, ſo others be introduc'd and come in their room, and that in much greater Plenty and Variety, than was ever known by our Ancestors. The Cucumber it ſelf, now ſo univerſally eaten, being accounted little better than Poyſon, even within our Memory, as already noted.
To conclude, and after all that has been ſaid of Plants and Salleting, formerly in great eſteem, (but ſince obſolete and quite rejected); What if the exalted Juice of the ancient Silphium ſhould come in, and challenge the Precedency? It is a 43Plant formerly ſo highly priz'd, and rare for the richneſs of its Taſte and other  Vertues; that as it was dedicated to Apollo, and hung up in his Temple at Delphi; So we read of one ſingle Root brought to the Emperor Nero for an extraordinary Preſent; and the Drug ſo eſteem'd, that the Romans had long before amaſs'd a quantity of it, and kept it in the Treaſury, till Julius Cæſar rob'd it, and took this away, as a thing of mighty value: In a word, it was of that Account; that as a ſacred Plant, thoſe of the Cyrenaic Africa, honour'd the very Figure of it, by ſtamping it on the Reverſe of their 44Coin; and when they would commend a thing for its worth to the Skies, Βατ-ου σιλφιον, grew into a Proverb: Battus having been the Founder of the City Cyrene, near which it only grew. 'Tis indeed conteſted among the Learned Botanoſophiſts, whether this Plant was not the ſame with Laſerpitium, and the Laſer it yields, the odoriferous 45Benzoin? But doubtleſs had we the true and genuine Silphium (for it appears to have been often ſophiſticated, and a ſpurious ſort brought into Italy) it would ſoon recover its  priſtine Reputation, and that it was not celebrated ſo for nothing extraordinary; ſince beſsides its Medicinal Vertue; it was a wonderful Corroborater of the Stomach, a Reſtorer of loſt Appetite, and Maſculine Vigour, &c. and that they made uſe of it almoſt in every thing they eat.
But ſhould we now really tell the World, that this precious Juice is, by many, thought to be no other than the 46Faetid Aſſa our nicer Sallet-Eaters (who yet beſtow as odious an Epithet on the vulgar Garlick) would cry out upon it as intolerable, and perhaps hardly believe it: But as Ariſtophanes has brought it in, and ſufficiently deſcrib'd it; ſo the Scholiaſt upon the place, puts it out of Controverſy: And that they made uſe both of the Leaves, Stalk, (and Extract eſpecially) as we now do Garlick, and other Hautgouts as nauſeous altogether. In the mean time, Garcius, Bontius, and others, aſſure us, that the Indians at this day univerſally ſauce their Viands with it; and the Bramins (who eat no Fleſh at all) inrich their  Sallets, by constantly rubbing the Diſhes with it. Nor are ſome of our own ſkilful Cooks Ingnorant, how to condite and uſe it, with the Applauſe of thoſe, who, ignorant of the Secret, have admir'd the richneſs of the Guſt it has imparted, when it has been ſubſtituted inſtead of all our Cipollati, and other ſeaſonings of that Nature.
And thus have we done with the various Species of all ſuch Eſculents as may properly enter the Compoſition of our Acetaria, and cold Sallet. And if I have briefly touch'd upon their Natures, Degrees, and primary Qualities, which Intend or Remit, as to the Scale of Heat, Cold, Drineſs, Moiſture, &c. (which is to be underſtood according to the different Texture of their component Particles) it has not been without what I thought neceſſary for the Inſtruction of the Gatherer, and Sallet-Dreſſer; how he ought to chooſe, ſort, and mingle his Materials and Ingredients together.
What Care and Circumſpection ſhould attend the choice and collection of Sallet Herbs, has been partly ſhew'd. I can therefore, by no means, approve of that extravagant Fancy of ſome, who tell us, that a Fool is as fit to be the Gatherer of a Sallet as a Wiſer Man. Becauſe, ſay they, one can hardly chooſe amiſs, provided  the Plants be green, young, and tender, where-ever they meet with them: But ſad experience ſhews, how many fatal Miſtakes have been committed by thoſe who took the deadly Cicutæ, Hemlocks, Aconits, &c. for Garden Perſley, and Parſneps; the Myrrhis Sylveſtris, or Cow-Weed, for Chaerophilum, (Chervil) Thapſia for Fennel; the wild Chondrilla for Succory; Dogs-Mercury inſtead of Spinach: Papaver Corniculatum Luteum, and horn'd Poppy for Eringo; Oenanthe aquatica for the Paluſtral Apium, and a world more, whoſe dire effects have been many times ſudden Death, and the cause of Mortal Accidents to thoſe who have eaten of them unwittingly: But ſuppoſing ſome of thoſe wild and unknown Plants ſhould not prove ſo deleterious and 47unwholſome; yet may others of them annoy the Head, Brain, and Genus Nervoſum, weaken the Eyes, offend the Stomach, affect the Liver, torment the Bowels, and diſcover their malignity in dangerous and dreadful Symptoms. And therefore ſuch Plants as are rather Medicinal than Nouriſhing and Refreſhing, are ſtudiouſly to be rejected. So highly neceſſary it is, that what we ſometimes find in old Books concerning Edules of other  Countries and Climates (frequently call'd by the Names of ſuch as are wholſome in ours, and among us) miſlead not the unskilful Gatherer; to prevent which we read of divers Popes and Emperors, that had ſometimes Learned Phyſicians for their Maſter-Cooks. I cannot therefore but exceedingly approve of that charitable Advice of Mr. Ray 48(Tranſact. Num. 238.) who thinks it the Intereſt of Mankind, that all Perſons ſhould be caution'd of advent'ring upon unknown Herbs and Plants to their Prejudice: Of ſuch, I ſay, with our excellent 49Poet (a little chang'd)
Happy from ſuch conceal'd, if ſtill do lie,
Of Roots and Herbs the unwholſome Luxury.
The Illuſtrious and Learned Columna has, by obſerving what 50Inſects did uſually feed on, make Conjectures of the Nature of the Plants. But I ſhould not ſo readily adventure upon it on that account, as to its wholſomneſs: For tho' indeed one may ſafely eat of a Peach or  Abricot, after a Snail has been Taſter, I queſtion whether it might be ſo of all other Fruits and Herbs attack'd by other Inſects: Nor would one conclude, the Hyoſcyamus harmleſs, because the Cimex feeds upon it, as the Learned Dr. Lyſter has diſcover'd. Notice ſhould therefore be taken what Eggs of Inſects are found adhering to the Leaves of Sallet-Herbs, and frequently cleave ſo firmly to them, as not eaſily to be waſh'd off, and ſo not being taken notice of, paſſing for accidental and harmleſs Spots only, may yet produce very ill effects.
Grillus, who according to the Doctrine of Tranſmigration (as Plutarch tells us) had, in his turn, been a Beaſt; diſcourſes how much better he fed, and liv'd, than when he was turn'd to Man again, as knowing then, what Plants were beſt and moſt proper for him: Whilſt Men, Sarcophagiſts (Fleſh-Eaters) in all this time were yet to ſeek. And 'tis indeed very evident, that Cattel, and other πανφαγα, and herbaceous Animals which feed on Plants, are directed by their Smell, and accordingly make election of their Food: But Men (beſsides the Smell and Taſte) have, or ſhould have, Reaſon, Experience, and the Aids of Natural Philoſophy to be their Guides in this Matter. We have heard of Plants, that (like the Baſilisk) kill and  infect by 51looking on them only; and ſome by the touch. The truth is, there's need of all the Senſes to determine Analogically concerning the Vertues and Properties, even of the Leaves alone of many Edule Plants: The moſt eminent Principles of near the whole Tribe of Sallet Vegetables, inclining rather to Acid and Sowre than to any other quality, eſpecially, Salt, Sweet, or Luſcious. There is therefore Skill and Judgment requir'd, how to ſuit and mingle our Sallet-Ingredients, ſo as may beſt agree with the Conſtitution of the (vulgarly reputed) Humors of thoſe who either ſtand in need of, or affect theſe Refreſhments, and by ſo adjuſting them, that as nothing ſhould be ſuffer'd to domineer, ſo ſhould none of them loſe their genuine Guſt, Savour, or Vertue. To this end,
The Cooler, and moderately refreſhing, ſhould be choſen to extinguiſh Thirſt, attemper the Blood, repreſs Vapours, &c.
The Hot, Dry, Aromatic, Cordial and friendly to the Brain, may be qualify'd by the Cold and Moiſt: The Bitter and Stomachical, with the Sub-acid and gentler Herbs: The Mordicant  and pungent, and ſuch as repreſs or diſcuſs Flatulency (revive the Spirits, and aid Concoction;) with ſuch as abate, and take off the keenneſs, mollify and reconcile the more harſh and churliſh: The mild and inſipid, animated with piquant and brisk: The Aſtringent and Binders, with ſuch as are Laxative and Deobſtruct: The over-ſluggish, raw, and unactive, with thoſe that are Eupeptic, and promote Concoction: There are Pectorals for the Breaſt and Bowels. Thoſe of middle Nature, according as they appear to be more or leſs Specific; and as their Characters (tho' briefly) are deſcrib'd in our foregoing Catalogue: For notwithſtanding it ſeem in general, that raw Sallets and Herbs have experimentally been found to be the most ſoveraign Diet in that Endemial (and indeed with us, Epidemical and almoſt univerſal) Contagion the Scorbute, to which we of this Nation, and moſt other Ilanders are obnoxious; yet, ſince the Naſturtia are ſingly, and alone as it were, the moſt effectual, and powerful Agents in conquering and expugning that cruel Enemy; it were enough to give the Sallet-Dreſſer direction how to chooſe, mingle, and proportion his Ingredients; as well as to ſhew what Remedies there are contain'd in our Magazine of Sallet-Plants upon all Occaſions, rightly  marſhal'd and skilfully apply'd. So as (with our 52ſweet Cowley)
If thro' the ſtrong and beauteous Fence
Of Temperance and Innocence,
And wholſome Labours, and a quiet Mind,
Diſeaſes paſſage find;
They muſt not think here to aſſail
A Land unarm'd, or without Guard,
They muſt fight for it, and diſpute it hard,
Before they can prevail;
Scarce any Plant is uſed here,
Which 'gainſt ſome Aile a Weapon does not bear.
We have ſaid how neceſſary it is, that in the Compoſure of a Sallet, every Plant ſhould come in to bear its part, without being over-power'd by ſome Herb of a ſtronger Taſte, ſo as to endanger the native Sapor and vertue of the reſt; but fall into their places, like the Notes in Muſic, in which there ſhould be nothing harſh or grating: And tho' admitting ſome Diſcords (to diſtinguiſh and illuſtrate the reſt) ſtriking in the more ſprightly, and ſometimes gentler Notes, reconcile all Diſſonancies, and melt them into an agreeable Compoſition. Thus the Comical Maſter-Cook, introduc'd by Damoxenus,  when asked πως εσις αυτοις ονμφονια; What Harmony there was in Meats? The very ſame (ſays he) that a Diateſſaron, Diapente, and Diapaſon have one to another in a Conſort of Muſic: And that there was as great care requir'd, not to mingle 53Sapores minime conſentientes, jarring and repugnant Taſtes; looking upon him as a lamentable Ignorant, who ſhould be no better vers'd in Democritus. The whole Scene is very diverting, as Athenæus preſents it; and to the ſame ſenſe Macrobius, Saturn. lib. I. cap. I. In ſhort, the main Skill of the Artiſt lies in this:
As our 54Paradiſian Bard introduces Eve, dreſſing of a Sallet for her Angelical Gueſt.
Thus, by the diſcreet choice and mixture of the Oxoleon (Oyl, Vinegar, Salt, &c.) the Compoſition is perfect; ſo as neither the Prodigal, Niggard, nor Inſipid, ſhould (according to the Italian Rule) preſcribe in my Opinion; ſince One may be too profuſe, the Other 55over-ſaving, and the Third (like himſelf) give it no Reliſh at all: It may be too ſharp, if it exceed a grateful Acid; too Inſulſe and flat, if the Profuſion be extream. From all which it appears, that a Wiſe-Man is the proper Compoſer of an excellent Sallet, and how many Tranſcendences belong to an accompliſh'd Sallet-Dreſſer, ſo as to emerge an exact Critic indeed, He ſhould be skill'd in the Degrees, Terms, and various Species of Taſtes, according to the Scheme ſet us down in the Tables of the Learned 56Dr. Grew, to which I refer the Curious.
'Tis moreover to be conſider'd, that Edule  Plants are not in all their Taſtes and Vertues alike: For as Providence has made us to conſiſt of different Parts and Members, both Internal and External; ſo require they different Juices to nouriſh and ſupply them: Wherefore the force and activity of ſome Plants lie in the Root; and even the Leaves of ſome Bitter-Roots are ſweet, and è contra. Of others, in the Stem, Leaves, Buds, Flowers, &c. Some exert their Vigour without Decoction; others being a little preſs'd or contus'd; others again Raw, and beſt in Conſort; ſome alone, and per ſe without any σκενασια, Preparation, or Mixture at all. Care therefore muſt be taken by the Collector, that what he gathers anſwer to theſe Qualities; and that as near as he can, they conſiſt (I ſpeak of the cruder Salleting) of the Oluſcula, and ex foliis pubeſcentibus, or (as Martial calls them) Prototomi rudes, and very tendereſt Parts Gems, young Buds, and even firſt Rudiments of their ſeveral Plants; ſuch as we ſometimes find in the Craws of the Wood-Culver, Stock-Dove, Partridge, Pheaſants, and other Upland Fowl, where we have a natural Sallet, pick'd, and almoſt dreſs'd to our hands.
I. Preparatory to the Dreſſing therefore, let your Herby Ingredients be exquiſitely cull'd,  and cleans'd of all worm-eaten, ſlimy, canker'd, dry, ſpotted, or any ways vitiated Leaves. And then that they be rather diſcreetly ſprinkl'd, than over-much ſob'd with Spring-Water, eſpecially Lettuce, which Dr. 57Muffet thinks impairs their Vertue; but this, I ſuppoſe he means of the Cabbage-kind, whoſe heads are ſufficiently protected by the outer Leaves which cover it. After waſhing, let them remain a while in the Cullender, to drain the ſuperfluous moiſture: And laſtly, ſwing them altogether gently in a clean courſe Napkin; and ſo they will be in perfect condition to receive the Intinctus following.
II. That the Oyl, an Ingredient ſo indiſpenſibly and highly neceſſary, as to have obtain'd the name of Cibarium (and with us of Sallet-Oyl) be very clean, not high-colour'd, nor yellow; but with an Eye rather of a pallid Olive green, without Smell, or the leaſt touch of rancid, or indeed of any other ſensible Taſte or Scent at all; but ſmooth, light, and pleaſant upon the Tongue; ſuch as the genuine Omphacine, and native Luca Olives afford, fit to allay the tartneſs of Vinegar, and other Acids, yet  gently to warm and humectate where it paſſes. Some who have an averſion to Oyl, ſubſtitute freſh Butter in its ſtead; but 'tis ſo exceedingly clogging to the Stomach, as by no means to be allow'd.
III. Thirdly, That the Vinegar and other liquid Acids, perfectly clear, neither ſowre, Vapid or ſpent; be of the beſt Wine Vinegar, whether Diſtill'd, or otherwiſe Aromatiz'd, and impregnated with the Infuſion of Clove-gillyflowers, Elder, Roſes, Roſemary, Naſturtium, &c. inrich'd with the Vertues of the Plant.
A Verjuice not unfit for Sallet, is made by a Grape of that Name, or the green immature Cluſters of moſt other Grapes, preſs'd and put into a ſmall Veſſel to ferment.
IV. Fourthly, That the Salt (aliorum Condimentorum Condimentum, as Plutarch calls it) deterſive, penetrating, quickning (and ſo great a reſiſter of Putrefaction, and univerſal uſe, as to have ſometimes merited Divine Epithets) be of the brighteſt Bay grey-Salt; moderately dried, and contus'd, as being the leaſt Corroſive: But of this, as of Sugar alſo, which ſome mingle with the Salt (as warming without heating) if  perfectly refin'd, there would be no great difficulty; provided none, ſave Ladies, were of the Meſs; whilſt the perfection of Sallets, and that which gives them the name, conſiſts in the grateful Saline Acid-point, temper'd as is directed, and which we find to be moſt eſteem'd by judicious Palates: Some, in the mean time, have been ſo nice, and luxuriouſly curious as for the heightning, and (as they affect to ſpeak) giving the utmoſt poinant and Relevèe in lieu of our vulgar Salt, to recommend and cry-up the Eſſential-Salts and Spirits of the moſt Sanative Vegetables; or ſuch of the Alcalizate and Fixt; extracted from the Calcination of Baulm, Roſemary, Wormwood, Scurvy-graſs, &c. Affirming that without the groſs Plant, we might have healing, cooling, generous, and refreſhing Cordials, and all the Materia Medica out of the Salt-Cellar only: But to ſay no more of this Impertinence, as to Salts of Vegetables; many indeed there be, who reckon them not much unlike in Operation, however different in Taſte, Cryſtals, and Figure: It being a queſtion, whether they at all retain the Vertues and Faculties of their Simples, unleſs they could be made without Colcination. Franciſcus Redi, gives us his Opinion of this, in a Proceſs how they are to be prepar'd; and ſo does our  Learned 58Doctor (whom we lately nam'd) whether Lixivial, Eſſential, Marine, or other factitious Salts of Plants, with their Qualities, and how they differ: But ſince 'tis thought all Fixed Salts made the common way, are little better than our common Salt, let it ſuffice, that our Sallet-Salt be of the beſt ordinary Bay-Salt, clean, bright, dry, and without clamineſs.
Of Sugar (by ſome call'd Indian-Salt) as it is rarely us'd in Sallet, it ſhould be of the beſt refined, white, hard, cloſe, yet light and ſweet as the Madera's: Nouriſhing, preſerving, cleanſing, delighting the Taſte, and preferrable to Honey for moſt uſes. Note, That both this, Salt, and Vinegar, are to be proportion'd to the Conſtitution, as well as what is ſaid of the Plants themſelves. The one for cold, the other for hot stomachs.
V. That the Muſtard (another noble Ingredient) be of the beſt Tewksberry; or elſe compos'd of the ſoundest and weightieſt Yorkſhire Seed, exquiſitely ſifted, winnow'd, and freed from the Husks, a little (not over-much) dry'd by the Fire, temper'd to the conſiſtence of a  Pap with Vinegar, in which ſhavings of the Horſe-Radiſh have been ſteep'd: Then cutting an Onion, and putting it into a ſmall Earthen Gally-Pot, or ſome thick Glaſs of that ſhape; pour the Muſtard over it, and cloſe it very well with a Cork. There be, who preſerve the Flower and Duſt of the bruiſed Seed in a well-ſtopp'd Glaſs, to temper, and have it freſh when they pleaſe. But what is yet by ſome eſteem'd beyond all theſe, is compos'd of the dried Seeds of the Indian Naſturtium, reduc'd to Powder, finely bolted, and mixt with a little Levain, and ſo from time to time made freſh, as indeed all other Muſtard ſhould be.
Note, That the Seeds are pounded in a Mortar; or bruis'd with a poliſh'd Cannon-Bullet, in a large wooden Bowl-Diſh, or which is moſt preferr'd, ground in a Quern contriv'd for this purpoſe only.
VI. Sixthly, That the Pepper (white or black) be not bruis'd to too ſmall a Duſt; which, as we caution'd, is very prejudicial. And here let me mention the Root of the Minor Pimpinella, or ſmall Burnet Saxifrage; which being dried, is by ſome extoll'd beyond all other Peppers, and more wholſom.
Of other Strewings and Aromatizers, which  may likewiſe be admitted to inrich our Sallet, we have already ſpoken, where we mention Orange and Limon-peel; to which may alſo be added, Jamaica-Pepper, Juniper-berries, &c. as of ſingular Vertue.
Nor here ſhould I omit (the mentioning at leaſt of) Saffron, which the German Houſewives have a way of forming into Balls, by mingling it with a little Honey; which throughly dried, they reduce to Powder, and ſprinkle it over their Sallets for a noble Cordial. Thoſe of Spain and Italy, we know, generally make uſe of this Flower, mingling its golden Tincture with almoſt every thing they eat; But its being ſo apt to prevail above every thing with which 'tis blended, we little incourage its admittance into our Sallet.
VII. Seventhly, That there be the Yolks of freſh and new-laid Eggs, boil'd moderately hard, to be mingl'd and maſh'd with the Muſtard, Oyl, and Vinegar; and part to cut into quarters, and eat with the Herbs.
VIII. Eighthly, (according to the ſuper-curious) that the Knife, with which the Sallet Herbs are cut (eſpecially Oranges, Limons, &c.) be of Silver, and by no means of Steel, which  all Acids are apt to corrode, and retain a Metalic reliſh of.
IX. Ninthly and Laſtly, That the Saladiere, (Sallet-Diſhes) be of Porcelane, or of the Holland-Delft-Ware; neither too deep nor ſhallow, according to the quantity of the Sallet Ingredients; Pewter, or even Silver, not at all ſo well agreeing with Oyl and Vinegar, which leave their ſeveral Tinctures. And note, That there ought to be one of the Diſhes, in which to beat and mingle the Liquid Vehicles; and a ſecond to receive the crude Herbs in, upon which they are to be pour'd; and then with a Fork and a Spoon kept continually ſtirr'd, 'till all the Furniture be equally moiſten'd: Some, who are huſbands of their Oyl, pour at firſt the Oyl alone, as more apt to communicate and diffuſe its Slipperineſs, than when it is mingled and beaten with the Acids; which they pour on laſt of all; and 'tis incredible how ſmall a quantity of Oyl (in this quality, like the gilding of Wyer) is ſufficient, to imbue a very plentiful aſſembly of Sallet-Herbs.
The Sallet-Gatherer likewiſe ſhould be provided with a light, and neatly made Withy-Dutch-Basket, divided into ſeveral Partitions. Thus inſtructed and knowing in the Apparatus;  the Species, Proportions, and manner of Dreſſing, according to the ſeveral Seaſons you have in the following Table.
It being one of the Inquiries of the Noble 59Mr. Boyle, what Herbs were proper and fit to make Sallets with, and how beſt to order them? we have here (by the Aſſiſtance of Mr. London, His Majeſty's Principal Gard'ner) reduc'd them to a competent Number, not exceeding Thirty Five; but which may be vary'd and inlarg'd, by taking in, or leaving out, any other Sallet-Plant, mention'd in the foregoing Liſt, under theſe three or four Heads.
But all theſe ſorts are not to be had at the very ſame time, and therefore we have divided them into the Quarterly Seaſons, each containing and laſting Three Months.
Note, That by Parts is to be underſtood a Pugil; which is no more than one does uſually take up between the Thumb and the two next Fingers. By Faſcicule a reaſonable full Grip, or Handful.[pg]
[Transcriber's Note: The following tables have been modified from their original layout. The left-most columns are converted to "section headers", the column headers have been reproduced above each of these new sections, and a horizontal rule added above them to better visually indicate the restructuring. As you can see from following the link to the image of the table, the original structure is very wide.]
See the original table as an image.
|Species.||Ordering and Culture.|
|1. Endive,||Tied-up to Blanch.|
|6. Roman||Lettuce,||Tied-up to Blanch.|
|8. Sileſian||Tied cloſe up.|
|9. Cabbage||Pome and Blanch of themſelves.|
|XXVI. Green Unblanch'd|
|Species.||Ordering and Culture.|
|10. Lob-Lettuce,||Leaves, all of a midling ſize.|
|13. Creſſes broad,||Seed-Leaves, and the next to them.|
|14. Spinach, curled,|
|15. Sorrel French,||The fine young Leaves only, with the first Shoots.|
|16. Sorrel, Greenland,|
|17. Radiſh,||Only the tender young Leaves.|
|18. Creſſes,||The Seed-Leaves, and thoſe only next them.|
|19. Turnep,||The Seed-Leaves only.|
||The young Leaves immediately after the Seedlings.|
|24. Rocket, Spaniſh|
|26. Tarragon,||The tender Shoots and Tops.|
|28. Sampier,||The young tender Leaves and Shoots.|
|30. Sage, Red|
|31. Shalots,||The tender young Leaves.|
|32. Cives and Onion,|
|33. Naſturtium, Indian||The Flowers and Bud-Flowers.|
|34. Rampion, Belgrade||The Seed-Leaves and young Tops.|
|Month. January, February, and March.|
|Blanch'd as before||Rampions,||10||Roots in number.|
|Lamb-Lettuce,||A pugil of each.|
|Radiſh,||Three parts each.|
|Turneps,||Of each One part.|
|Sorrel, Greenland,||One part of each.|
|Tarragon,||Twenty large Leaves.|
|Balm,||One ſmall part of each.|
|Cabbage-Winter,||Two pugils or ſmall handfuls.|
|Month. April, May, and June.|
|Blanch'd||Lop,||Lettuce.||Of each a pugil.|
of Orange and
Limon may all
theſe Months be
|Purſelan,||1 Faſciat, or pretty full gripe.|
|Sorrel, French||Two parts.|
|Onions, young||Six parts.|
|Sage-tops, the Red,||Two parts.|
|Perſley,||Of each One part.|
|Creſſes, the Indian,|
|Month. July, Auguſt, and September.|
may be eaten
|Sileſian Lettuce,||One whole Lettuce.|
|Roman Lettuce,||Two parts.|
|Belgrade, or Crumpen-Lettuce,||Two parts.|
|Sorrel, French||Two parts of each.|
|Month. October, November, and December.|
|Blanch'd||Endive,||Two if large, four if ſmall, Stalk and part of the Root and Tendereſt Leaves.|
|Lop-Lettuce,||An handful of each.|
|Green||Turneps,||One part of each.|
|Creſſes, broad||Two parts of each.|
See the original table as an image.
Farther Directions concerning the proper Seaſons for the Gathering, Compoſing, and Dreſſing of a Sallet.
A nd Firſt, as to the Seaſon both Plants and Roots are then properly to be Gather'd, and in prime, when moſt they abound with Juice and in Vigour: Some in the Spring, or a little anticipating it before they Bloſſom, or are in full Flower: Some in the Autumnal Months; which later Seaſon many prefer, the Sap of the Herb, tho' not in ſuch exuberance, yet as being then better concocted, and ſo render'd fit for Salleting, 'till the Spring begins a freſh to put forth new, and tender Shoots and Leaves.
This, indeed, as to the Root, newly taken out of the Ground is true; and therefore ſhould ſuch have their Germination ſtopt the ſooner: The approaching and prevailing Cold, both Maturing and Impregnating them; as does Heat the contrary, which now would but exhauſt them: But for thoſe other Eſculents and Herbs imploy'd in our Compoſition of Sallets,  the early Spring, and enſuing Months (till they begin to mount, and prepare to Seed) is certainly the moſt natural, and kindly Seaſon to collect and accommodate them for the Table. Let none then conſult Culpeper, or the Figure-flingers, to inform them when the governing Planet is in its Exaltation; but look upon the Plants themſelves, and judge of their Vertues by their own Complexions.
Moreover, in Gathering, Reſpect is to be had to their Proportions, as provided for in the Table under that Head, be the Quality whatſoever: For tho' there is indeed nothing more wholſome than Lettuce and Muſtard for the Head and Eyes; yet either of them eaten in exceſs, were highly prejudicial to them both: Too much of the firſt extreamly debilitating and weakning the Ventricle, and haſtning the further decay of ſickly Teeth; and of the ſecond the Optic Nerves, and Sight it ſelf; the like may be ſaid of all the reſt. I conceive therefore, a Prudent Perſon, well acquainted with the Nature and Properties of Sallet-Herbs, &c. to be both the fitteſt Gatherer and Compoſer too; which yet will require no great Cunning, after once he is acquainted with our Table and Catalogue.
We purpoſely, and in tranſitu only, take notice here of the Pickl'd, Muriated, or otherwiſe  prepared Herbs; excepting ſome ſuch Plants, and Proportions of them, as are of hard digeſtion, and not fit to be eaten altogether Crude, (of which in the Appendix) and among which I reckon Aſh-keys, Broom-buds and Pods, Haricos, Gurkems, Olives, Capers, the Buds and Seeds of Naſturtia, Young Wall-nuts, Pine-apples, Eringo, Cherries, Cornelians, Berberries, &c. together with ſeveral Stalks, Roots, and Fruits; Ordinary Pot-herbs, Anis, Ciſtus Hortorum, Horminum, Pulegium, Satureia, Thyme; the intire Family of Pulſe and Legumena; or other Sauces, Pies, Tarts, Omlets, Tanſie, Farces, &c. Condites and Preſerves with Sugar by the Hand of Ladies; tho' they are all of them the genuine Production of the Garden, and mention'd in our Kalendar, together with their Culture; whilſt we confine our ſelves to ſuch Plants and Eſculenta as we find at hand; delight our ſelves to gather, and are eaſily prepar'd for an Extemporary Collation, or to Uſher in, and Accompany other (more Solid, tho' haply not more Agreeable) Diſhes, as the Cuſtom is.
But there now ſtarts up a Queſtion, Whether it were better, or more proper, to Begin with Sallets, or End and Conclude with them? Some think the harder Meats ſhould firſt be eaten for  better Concoction; others, thoſe of eaſiest Digeſtion, to make way, and prevent Obſtruction; and this makes for our Sallets, Horarii, and Fugaces Fructus (as they call 'em) to be eaten firſt of all, as agreeable to the general Opinion of the great Hippocrates, and Galen, and of Celſus before him. And therefore the French do well, to begin with their Herbaceous Pottage, and for the Cruder, a Reason is given:
60Prima tibi dabitur Ventri Lactuca movendo
Utilis, & Poris fila refecta ſuis.
And tho' this Cuſtom came in about Domitian's time61, ο μ αρκαιοι, they anciently did quite the contrary,
62Gratáque nobilium Lactuca ciborum.
But of later Times, they were conſtant at the Ante-cœnia, eating plentifully of Sallet, eſpecially of Lettuce, and more refrigerating Herbs. Nor without Cauſe: For drinking liberally they were found to expell, and allay the Fumes and Vapors of the genial Compotation, the ſpirituous  Liquor gently conciliating Sleep: Beſides, that being of a crude nature, more diſpos'd, and apt to fluctuate, corrupt, and diſturb a ſurcharg'd Stomach; they thought convenient to begin with Sallets, and innovate the ancient Uſage.
63——Nam Lactuca innatat acri
Poſt Vinum Stomacho——
For if on drinking Wine you Lettuce eat,
It floats upon the Stomach——
The Spaniards, notwithſtanding, eat but ſparingly of Herbs at Dinner, eſpecially Lettuce, beginning with Fruit, even before the Olio and Hot-Meats come to the Table; drinking their Wine pure, and eating the beſt Bread in the World; ſo as it ſeems the Queſtion ſtill remains undecided with them,
64Claudere quae cœnas Lactuca ſolebat avorum
Dic mihi cur noſtras inchoat illa dapes?
The Sallet, which of old came in at laſt,
Why now with it begin we our Repaſt?
And now ſince we mention'd Fruit, there riſes another Scruple: Whether Apples, Pears, Abricots, Cherries, Plums, and other Tree, and Ort-yard-Fruit, are to be reckon'd among Salleting; and when likewiſe moſt ſeaſonably to be eaten? But as none of theſe do properly belong to our Catalogue of Herbs and Plants, to which this Diſcourſe is confin'd (beſsides what we may occaſionally ſpeak of hereafter) there is a very uſeful 65Treatiſe on that Subject already publiſh'd. We haſten then in the next place to the Dreſſing, and Compoſing of our Sallet: For by this time, our Scholar may long to ſee the Rules reduc'd to Practice, and Refreſh himſelf with what he finds growing among his own Lactuceta and other Beds of the Kitchin-Garden.
I am not ambitious of being thought an excellent Cook, or of thoſe who ſet up, and value themſelves, for their skill in Sauces; ſuch as was Mithacus a Culinary Philoſopher, and other Eruditæ Gulæ; who read Lectures of Hautgouts, like the Archeſtratus in Athenæus: Tho' after what we find the Heroes did of old, and ſee them chining out the ſlaughter'd Ox, dreſſing the Meat, and do the Offices of both Cook and Butcher, (for ſo 66Homer repreſents Achilles himſelf, and the reſt of thoſe Illuſtrious Greeks) I ſay, after this, let none reproach our Sallet-Dreſſer, or diſdain ſo clean, innocent, ſweet, and Natural a Quality; compar'd with the Shambles Filth and Nidor, Blood and Cruelty; whilſt all the World were Eaters, and Compoſers of Sallets in its beſt and brighteſt Age.
The Ingredients therefore gather'd and proportion'd, as above; Let the Endive have all its out-ſide Leaves ſtripped off, ſlicing in the White: In like manner the Sellery is alſo to  have the hollow green Stem or Stalk trimm'd and divided; ſlicing-in the blanched Part, and cutting the Root into four equal Parts.
Lettuce, Greſſes, Radiſh, &c. (as was directed) muſt be exquiſitely pick'd, cleans'd, waſh'd, and put into the Strainer; ſwing'd, and ſhaken gently, and, if you pleaſe, ſeparately, or all together; Becauſe ſome like not ſo well the Blanch'd and Bitter Herbs, if eaten with the reſt: Others mingle Endive, Succory, and Rampions, without diſtinction, and generally eat Sellery by it ſelf, as alſo Sweet Fennel.
From April till September (and during all the Hot Months) may Guinny-Pepper, and Horſe-Radiſh be left out; and therefore we only mention them in the Dreſſing, which ſhould be in this manner.
Your Herbs being handſomely parcell'd, and ſpread on a clean Napkin before you, are to be mingl'd together in one of the Earthen glaz'd Diſhes: Then, for the Oxoleon; Take of clear, and perfectly good Oyl-Olive, three Parts; of ſharpeſt Vinegar (67ſweeteſt of all Condiments) Limon, or Juice of Orange, one Part; and therein let ſteep ſome Slices of Horſe-Radiſh, with a  little Salt; Some in a ſeparate Vinegar, gently bruiſe a Pod of Guinny-Pepper, ſtraining both the Vinegars apart, to make Uſe of Either, or One alone, or of both, as they beſt like; then add as much Tewkesbury, or other dry Muſtard grated, as will lie upon an Half-Crown Piece: Beat, and mingle all theſe very well together; but pour not on the Oyl and Vinegar, 'till immediately before the Sallet is ready to be eaten: And then with the Yolk of two new-laid Eggs (boyl'd and prepar'd, as before is taught) ſquaſh, and bruiſe them all into maſh with a Spoon; and laſtly, pour it all upon the Herbs, ſtirring, and mingling them 'till they are well and throughly imbib'd; not forgetting the Sprinklings of Aromaticks, and ſuch Flowers, as we have already mentioned, if you think fit, and garniſhing the Diſh with the thin Slices of Horſe-Radiſh, Red Beet, Berberries, &c.
Note, That the Liquids may be made more, or leſs Acid, as is moſt agreeable to your Taſte.
Theſe Rules, and Preſcriptions duly Obſerv'd; you have a Sallet (for a Table of Six or Eight Perſons) Dreſs'd, and Accommodated ſecundum Artem: For, as the 68Proverb has it, 
Ου ωαντος ανδρος εσιν αρτυσαι καλως.
Non eſt cujuſvis rectè condire.
And now after all we have advanc'd in favour of the Herbaceous Diet, there ſtill emerges a third Inquiry; namely, Whether the Uſe of Crude Herbs and Plants are ſo wholeſom as is pretended?
What Opinion the Prince of Phyſicians had of them, we ſhall ſee hereafter; as alſo what the Sacred Records of elder Times ſeem to infer, before there were any Fleſh-Shambles in the World; together with the Reports of ſuch as are often converſant among many Nations and People, who to this Day, living on Herbs and Roots, arrive to incredible Age, in conſtant Health and Vigour: Which, whether attributable to the Air and Climate, Cuſtom, Conſtitution, &c. ſhould be inquir'd into; eſpecially, when we compare the Antediluvians mention'd Gen. 1. 29--the whole Fifth and Ninth Chapters, ver. 3. confining them to Fruit and wholeſom Sallets: I deny not that both the Air and Earth might then be leſs humid and clammy, and conſequently Plants, and Herbs better fermented, concocted, and leſs Rheumatick, than ſince, and preſently after; to ſay nothing of the infinite Numbers of putrid Carcaſſes of Dead  Animals, periſhing in the Flood, (of which I find few, if any, have taken notice) which needs muſt have corrupted the Air: Thoſe who live in Marſhes, and Uliginous Places (like the Hundreds of Eſſex) being more obnoxious to Fevers, Agues, Pleuriſies, and generally unhealthful: The Earth alſo then a very Bog, compar'd with what it likely was before that deſtructive Cataclyſm, when Men breath'd the pure Paradiſian Air, ſucking in a more æthereal, nouriſhing, and baulmy Pabulum, ſo foully vitiated now, thro' the Intemperance, Luxury, and ſofter Education and Effeminacy of the Ages ſince.
Cuſtom, and Conſtitution come next to be examin'd, together with the Qualities, and Vertue of the Food; and I confeſs, the two firſt, eſpecially that of Conſtitution, ſeems to me the more likely Cauſe of Health, and conſequently of Long-life; which induc'd me to conſider of what Quality the uſual Sallet Furniture did more eminently conſiſt, that ſo it might become more ſafely applicable to the Temper, Humour, and Diſpoſition of our Bodies; according to which, the various Mixtures might be regulated and proportion'd: There's no doubt, but thoſe whoſe Conſtitutions are Cold and Moiſt, are naturally affected with Things which are Hot and Dry; as on the contrary, Hot, and  Dry Complexions, with ſuch as cool and refrigerate; which perhaps made the Junior Gordian (and others like him) prefer the frigidæ Menſæ (as of old they call'd Sallets) which, according to Cornelius Celſus, is the fitteſt Diet for Obeſe and Corpulent Perſons, as not ſo Nutritive, and apt to Pamper: And conſequently, that for the Cold, Lean, and Emaciated; ſuch Herby Ingredients ſhould be made choice of, as warm, and cheriſh the Natural Heat, depure the Blood, breed a laudable Juice, and revive the Spirits: And therefore my Lord 69Bacon ſhews what are beſt Raw, what Boil'd, and what Parts of Plants fitteſt to nouriſh. Galen indeed ſeems to exclude them all, unleſs well accompanied with their due Correctives, of which we have taken care: Notwithſtanding yet, that even the moſt Crude and Herby, actually Cold and Weak, may potentially be Hot, and Strengthning, as we find in the moſt vigorous Animals, whoſe Food is only Graſs. 'Tis true indeed, Nature has providentially mingl'd, and dreſs'd a Sallet for them in every field, beſides what they diſtinguiſh by Smell; nor queſtion  I, but Man at firſt knew what Plants and Fruits were good, before the Fall, by his Natural Sagacity, and not Experience; which ſince by Art, and Trial, and long Obſervation of their Properties and Effects, they hardly recover: But in all Events, ſuppoſing with 70Cardan, that Plants nouriſh little, they hurt as little. Nay, Experience tells us, that they not only hurt not at all, but exceedingly benefit thoſe who uſe them; indu'd as they are with ſuch admirable Properties as they every day diſcover: For ſome Plants not only nouriſh laudably, but induce a manifeſt and wholeſom Change; as Onions, Garlick, Rochet, &c. which are both nutritive and warm; Lettuce, Purſelan, the Intybs, &c. and indeed moſt of the Olera, refreſh and cool: And as their reſpective Juices being converted into the Subſtances of our Bodies, they become Aliment; ſo in regard of their Change and Alteration, we may allow them Medicinal; eſpecially the greater Numbers, among which we all this while have skill but of very few (not only in the Vegetable Kingdom, but in the whole Materia Medica) which may be juſtly call'd Infallible Specifics,  and upon whoſe Performance we may as ſafely depend, as we may on ſuch as familiarly we uſe for a Crude Herb-Sallet; diſcreetly choſen, mingl'd, and dreſs'd accordingly: Not but that many of them may be improv'd, and render'd better in Broths, and Decoctions, than in Oyl, Vinegar, and other Liquids and Ingredients: But as this holds not in all, nay, perhaps in few comparatively, (provided, as I ſaid, the Choice, Mixture, Conſtitution, and Seaſon rightly be underſtood) we ſtand up in Defence and Vindication of our Sallet, againſt all Attacks and Oppoſers whoever.
We have mentioned Seaſon and with the great Hippocrates, pronounce them more proper for the Summer, than the Winter; and when thoſe Parts of Plants us'd in Sallet are yet tender, delicate, and impregnated with the Vertue of the Spring, to cool, refreſh, and allay the Heat and Drought of the Hot and Bilious, Young and over-Sanguine, Cold, Pituit, and Melancholy; in a word, for Perſons of all Ages, Humours, and Conſtitutions whatſoever.
To this of the Annual Seaſons, we add that of Culture alſo, as of very great Importance: And this is often diſcover'd in the taſte and conſequently in the Goodneſs of ſuch Plants and Salleting, as are Rais'd and brought us  freſh out of the Country, compar'd with thoſe which the Avarice of the Gardiner, or Luxury rather of the Age, tempts them to force and Reſuſcitate of the moſt deſirable and delicious Plants.
It is certain, ſays a 71Learned Perſon, that about populous Cities, where Grounds are over-forc'd for Fruit and early Salleting, nothing is more unwholſom: Men in the Country look ſo much more healthy and freſh; and commonly are longer liv'd than thoſe who dwell in the Middle and Skirts of vaſt and crowded Cities, inviron'd with rotten Dung, loathſome and common Lay Stalls; whoſe noiſome Steams, wafted by the Wind, poiſon and infect the ambient Air and vital Spirits, with thoſe pernicious Exhalations, and Materials of which they make the Hot Beds for the raiſing thoſe Præcoces indeed, and forward Plants and Roots for the wanton Palate; but which being corrupt in the Original, cannot but produce malignant and ill Effects to thoſe who feed upon them. And the ſame was well obſerv'd by the Editor of our famous Roger Bacon's Treatiſe concerning the Cure of Old Age, and Preſervation of Youth: There being nothing ſo proper for  Sallet Herbs and other Edule Plants, as the Genial and Natural Mould, impregnate, and enrich'd with well-digeſted Compoſt (when requiſite) without any Mixture of Garbage, odious Carrion, and other filthy Ordure, not half conſum'd and ventilated and indeed reduc'd to the next Diſpoſition of Earth it ſelf, as it ſhould be; and that in Sweet, 72Riſing, Aery and moderately Perflatile Grounds; where not only Plants but Men do laſt, and live much longer. Nor doubt I, but that every body would prefer Corn, and other Grain rais'd from Marle, Chalk, Lime, and other ſweet Soil and Amendments, before that which is produc'd from the Dunghil only. Beſide, Experience ſhews, that the Rankneſs of Dung is frequently the Cauſe of Blaſts and Smuttineſs; as if the Lord of the Univerſe, by an Act of viſible Providence would check us, to take heed of all unnatural Sordidneſs and Mixtures. We ſenſibly find this Difference in Cattle and their Paſture; but moſt powerfully in Fowl, from ſuch as are nouriſh'd with Corn, ſweet and dry Food: And as of Vegetable Meats, ſo of Drinks, 'tis obſerv'd, that the ſame Vine, according to the  Soil, produces a Wine twice as heady as in the ſame, and a leſs forc'd Ground; and the like I believe of all other Fruit, not to determine any thing of the Peach ſaid to be Poiſon in Perſia; becauſe 'tis a Vulgar Error.
Now, becauſe among other things, nothing more betrays its unclean and ſpurious Birth than what is ſo impatiently longed after as Early Aſparagus, &c. 73Dr. Liſter, (according to his communicative and obliging Nature) has taught us how to raiſe ſuch as our Gardiners cover with naſty Litter, during the Winter; by rather laying of Clean and Sweet Wheat-Straw upon the Beds, ſuper-ſeminating and over-ſtrowing them thick with the Powder of bruiſed Oyſter-Shells, &c. to produce that moſt tender and delicious Sallet. In the mean while, if nothing will ſatisfie ſave what is rais'd Ex tempore, and by Miracles of Art ſo long before the time; let them ſtudy (like the Adepti) as did a very ingenious Gentleman whom I knew; That having ſome Friends of his accidentally come to Dine with him, and wanting an early Sallet, Before they ſate down to Table, ſowed Lettuce and ſome other Seeds in a certain Compoſition of Mould he had prepared; which within the  ſpace of two Hours, being riſen near two Inches high, preſented them with a delicate and tender Sallet; and this, without making uſe of any nauſeous or fulſome Mixture; but of Ingredients not altogether ſo cheap perhaps. Honoratus Faber (no mean Philoſopher) ſhews us another Method by ſowing the Seeds ſteep'd in Vinegar, caſting on it a good quantity of Bean-Shell Aſhes, irrigating them with Spirit of Wine, and keeping the Beds well cover'd under dry Matts. Such another Proceſs for the raiſing early Peas and Beans, &c. we have the like 74Accounts of: But were they practicable and certain, I confeſs I ſhould not be fonder of them, than of ſuch as the honeſt induſtrious Country-man's Field, and Good Wife's Garden ſeaſonably produce; where they are legitimately born in juſt time, and without forcing Nature.
But to return again to Health and Long Life, and the Wholeſomneſs of the Herby-Diet, 75John Beverovicius, a Learn'd Phyſician (out of Peter Moxa, a Spaniard) treating of the extream Age, which thoſe of America uſually arrive to, aſſerts in behalf of Crude and Natural Herbs: Diphilus of old, as 76Athenæus tells  us, was on the other ſide, againſt all the Tribe of Olera in general; and Cardan of late (as already noted) no great Friend to them; Affirming Fleſh-Eaters to be much wiſer and more ſagacious. But this his 77Learned Antagoniſt utterly denies; Whole Nations, Fleſh-Devourers (ſuch as the fartheſt Northern) becoming Heavy, Dull, Unactive, and much more Stupid than the Southern; and ſuch as feed much on Plants, are more Acute, Subtil, and of deeper Penetration: Witneſs the Chaldæans, Aſſyrians, Ægyptians, &c. And further argues from the ſhort Lives of moſt Carnivorous Animals, compared with Graſs Feeders, and the Ruminating kind; as the Hart, Camel, and the longævous Elephant, and other Feeders on Roots and Vegetables.
I know what is pretended of our Bodies being compoſed of Diſſimilar Parts, and ſo requiring Variety of Food: Nor do I reject the Opinion, keeping to the ſame Species; of which there is infinitely more Variety in the Herby Family, than in all Nature beſsides: But the Danger is in the Generical Difference of Fleſh, Fiſh, Fruit, &c. with other made Diſhes and exotic Sauces; which a wanton and expenſive  Luxury has introduc'd; debauching the Stomach, and ſharpening it to devour things of ſuch difficult Concoction, with thoſe of more eaſie Digeſtion, and of contrary Substances, more than it can well diſpose of: Otherwiſe Food of the ſame kind would do us little hurt: So true is that of 78Celſus, Eduntur facilius; ad concoctionem autem materiæ, genus, & modus pertineat. They are (ſays he) eaſily eaten and taken in: But regard ſhould be had to their Digeſtion, Nature, Quantity and Quality of the Matter. As to that of Diſſimilar Parts, requiring this contended for Variety: If we may judge by other Animals (as I know not why we may not) there is (after all the late Conteſts about Comparative Anatomy) ſo little Difference in the Structure, as to the Uſe of thoſe Parts and Veſſels deſtin'd to ſerve the Offices of Concoction, Nutrition, and other Separations for Supply of Life, &c. That it does not appear why there ſhould need any Difference at all of Food; of which the moſt ſimple has ever been eſteem'd the beſt, and moſt wholſome; according to that of the 79Naturaliſt, Hominis cibus utiliſſimus ſimplex. And that ſo it is in other  Animals, we find by their being ſo ſeldom afflicted with Mens Diſtempers, deriv'd from the Cauſes above-mentioned: And if the many Diſeaſes of Horſes ſeem to 80contradict it, I am apt to think it much imputable to the Rack and Manger, the dry and wither'd Stable Commons, which they muſt eat or ſtarve, however qualified; being reſtrained from their Natural and Spontaneous Choice, which Nature and Instinct directs them to: To theſe add the Cloſeneſs of the Air, ſtanding in an almoſt continu'd Poſture; beſides the fulſome Drenches, unſeaſonable Watrings, and other Practices of ignorant Horſe-Quacks and ſurly Grooms: The Tyranny and cruel Uſage of their Maſters in tiring Journeys, hard, labouring and unmerciful Treatment, Heats, Colds, &c. which wear out and deſtroy ſo many of thoſe uſeful and generous Creatures before the time: Such as have been better us'd, and ſome, whom their more gentle and good-natur'd Patrons have in recompence of their long and faithful service, diſmiſs'd, and ſent to Paſture for the reſt of their Lives (as the Grand Seignior does his Meccha-Camel) have been known to live forty,  fifty, nay (ſays 81Ariſtotle,) no fewer than ſixty five Years. When once Old Par came to change his ſimple, homely Diet, to that of the Court and Arundel-Houſe, he quickly ſunk and dropt away: For, as we have ſhew'd, the Stomack eaſily concocts plain, and familiar Food; but finds it an hard and difficult Task, to vanquiſh and overcome Meats of 82different Subſtances: Whence we ſo often ſee temperate and abſtemious Perſons, of a Collegiate Diet, very healthy; Huſbandsmen and laborious People, more robuſt, and longer liv'd than others of an uncertain extravagant Diet.
83——Nam variae res
Ut noceant Homini, credas, memor illius eſcae,
Quae ſimplex olim tibi ſederit——
For different Meats do hurt;
When to one Diſh confin'd, thou
healthier waſt than now:
was Oſellus's Memorandum in the Poet.
Not that variety (which God has certainly ordain'd to delight and aſſiſt our Appetite) is unneceſſary, nor any thing more grateful, refreſhing  and proper for thoſe eſpecially who lead ſedentary and ſtudious Lives; Men of deep Thought, and ſuch as are otherwiſe diſturb'd with Secular Cares and Buſineſſes, which hinders the Function of the Stomach and other Organs: whilſt thoſe who have their Minds free, uſe much Exerciſe, and are more active, create themſelves a natural Appetite, which needs little or no Variety to quicken and content it.
And here might we atteſt the Patriarchal World, nay, and many Perſons ſince; who living very temperately came not much ſhort of the Poſt-Diluvians themſelves, counting from Abraham to this Day; and ſome exceeding them, who liv'd in pure Air, a conſtant, tho' courſe and ſimple Diet; wholſome and uncompounded Drink; that never taſted Brandy or Exotic Spirits; but us'd moderate Exerciſe, and obſerv'd good Hours: For ſuch a one a curious Miſſionary tells us of in Perſia; who had attain'd the Age of four hundred Years, (a full Century beyond the famous Johannes de Temporibus) and was living Anno 1636, and ſo may be ſtill for ought we know. But, to our Sallet.
Certain it is, Almighty God ordaining 84Herbs and Fruit for the Food of Men, ſpeaks not a  Word concerning Fleſh for two thouſand Years. And when after, by the Moſaic Conſtitution, there were Diſtinctions and Prohibitions about the legal Uncleanneſs of Animals; Plants, of what kind ſoever, were left free and indifferent for every one to chooſe what beſt he lik'd. And what if it was held undecent and unbecoming the Excellency of Man's Nature, before Sin entred, and grew enormouſly wicked, that any Creature ſhould be put to Death and Pain for him who had ſuch infinite ſtore of the moſt delicious and nouriſhing Fruit to delight, and the Tree of Life to ſuſtain him? Doubtleſs there was no need of it. Infants ſought the Mother's Nipple as ſoon as born; and when grown, and able to feed themſelves, run naturally to Fruit, and ſtill will chooſe to eat it rather than Fleſh and certainly might ſo perſiſt to do, did not Cuſtom prevail, even againſt the very Dictates of Nature: Nor, queſtion I, but that what the Heathen 85Poets recount of the Happineſs of the Golden Age, ſprung from ſome Tradition they had received of the Paradiſian Fare, their innocent and healthful Lives in that delightful Garden. Let it ſuffice, that Adam, and his yet innocent Spouſe, fed on Vegetables and other  Hortulan Productions before the fatal Lapſe; which, by the way, many Learned Men will hardly allow to have fallen out ſo ſoon as thoſe imagine who ſcarcely grant them a ſingle Day; nay, nor half a one, for their Continuance in the State of Original Perfection; whilſt the ſending him into the Garden; Inſtructions how he ſhould keep and cultivate it; Edict, and Prohibition concerning the Sacramental Trees; the Impoſition of 86Names, ſo appoſite to the Nature of ſuch an Infinity of Living Creatures (requiring deep Inſpection) the Formation of Eve, a meet Companion to relieve his Solitude; the Solemnity of their Marriage; the Dialogues and Succeſs of the crafty Tempter, whom we cannot reaſonably think made but one Aſſault: And that they ſhould ſo quickly forget the Injunction of their Maker and Benefactor; break their Faith and Faſt, and all other their Obligations in ſo few Moments. I ſay, all theſe Particulars conſider'd; Can it be ſuppoſed they were ſo ſoon tranſacted as thoſe do fancy, who take their Meaſure from the Summary Moſes gives us, who did not write to gratifie Mens Curioſity, but to tranſmit what was neceſſary and ſufficient for us to know.
 This then premis'd (as I ſee no Reaſon why it ſhould not) and that during all this Space they liv'd on Fruits and Sallets; 'tis little probable, that after their Tranſgreſſion, and that they had forfeited their Dominion over the Creature (and were ſentenc'd and exil'd to a Life of Sweat and Labour on a curſed and ungrateful Soil) the offended God ſhould regale them with Pampering Fleſh, or ſo much as ſuffer them to ſlay the more innocent Animal: Or, that if at any time they had Permiſſion, it was for any thing ſave Skins to cloath them, or in way of Adoration, or Holocauſt for Expiation, of which nothing of the Fleſh was to be eaten. Nor did the Brutes themſelves ſubſiſt by Prey (tho' pleas'd perhaps with Hunting, without deſtroying their Fellow Creatures) as may be preſum'd from their long Secluſion of the moſt Carnivorous among them in the Ark.
Thus then for two thouſand Years, the Univerſal Food was Herbs and Plants; which abundantly recompens'd the Want of Fleſh and other luxurious Meats, which ſhortened their Lives ſo many hundred Years; the 87 μακρο-βιοτη-α of the Patriarchs, which was an Emblem of Eternity as it were (after the new  Conceſſion) beginning to dwindle to a little Span, a Nothing in Compariſon.
On the other ſide, examine we the preſent Uſages of ſeveral other Heathen Nations; particularly (beſsides the Ægyptian Prieſts of old) the Indian Bramins, Relicts of the ancient Gymnoſophists to this Day, obſerving the Inſtitutions of their Founder. Fleſh, we know was baniſh'd the Platonic Tables, as well as from thoſe of Pythagoras; (See 88Porphyry and their Diſciples) tho' on different Accounts. Among others of the Philoſophers, from Xenocrates, Polemon, &c. we hear of many. The like we find in 89Clement Alexand. 90Euſebius names more. Zeno, Archinomus, Phraartes, Chiron, and others, whom Lærtius reckons up. In ſhort, ſo very many, eſpecially of the Chriſtian Profeſſion, that ſome, even of the ancient 91Fathers themſelves, have almost thought that the Permiſſion of eating Fleſh to Noah and his Sons, was granted them no otherwiſe than Repudiation of Wives was to the Jews, namely, for the Hardneſs of their Hearts, and to ſatisfie a murmuring Generation that a little after loathed Manna it ſelf, and Bread from Heaven.  So difficult a thing it is to ſubdue an unruly Appetite; which notwithſtanding 92Seneca thinks not ſo hard a Task; where ſpeaking of the Philoſopher Sextius, and Socion's (abhorring Cruelty and Intemperance) he celebrates the Advantages of the Herby and Sallet Diet, as Phyſical, and Natural Advancers of Health and other Bleſſings; whilſt Abſtinence from Fleſh deprives Men of nothing but what Lions, Vultures, Beaſts and birds of Prey, blood and gorge themſelves withal, The whole Epiſtle deſerves the Reading, for the excellent Advice he gives on this and other Subjects; and how from many troubleſome and ſlaviſh Impertinencies, grown into Habit and Cuſtom (old as he was) he had Emancipated and freed himſelf: Be this apply'd to our preſent exceſſive Drinkers of Foreign and Exotic Liquors. And now
I am ſufficiently ſenſible how far, and to how little purpoſe I am gone on this Topic: The Ply is long ſince taken, and our raw Sallet deckt in its beſt Trim, is never like to invite Men who once have taſted Fleſh to quit and abdicate a Cuſtom which has now ſo long obtain'd. Nor truly do I think Conſcience at all concern'd in the Matter, upon any Account of  Distinction of Pure and Impure; tho' ſeriouſly conſider'd (as Sextius held) rationi magis congrua, as it regards the cruel Butcheries of ſo many harmleſs Creatures; ſome of which we put to mercileſs and needleſs Torment, to accommodat them for exquiſite and uncommon Epicuriſm. There lies elſe no poſitive Prohibition; Diſcrimination of Meats being 93Condemn'd as the Doctrine of Devils: Nor do Meats commend us to God. One eats quid vult (of every thing:) another Olera, and of Sallets only: But this is not my Buſineſs, further than to ſhew how poſſible it is by ſo many Inſtances and Examples, to live on wholſome Vegetables, both long and happily: For ſo
94The Golden Age, with this Proviſion bleſt,
Such a Grand Sallet made, and was a Feaſt.
The Demi-Gods with Bodies large and ſound,
Commended then the Product of the Ground.
Fraud then, nor Force were known, nor filthy Luſt,
Which Over-heating and Intemp'rance nurſt:
Be their vile Names in Execration held,
Who with foul Glutt'ny firſt the World defil'd:
Parent of Vice, and all Diſeaſes ſince,
With ghaſtly Death ſprung up alone from thence.
Ah, from ſuch reeking, bloody Tables fly,
Which Death for our Deſtruction does ſupply.
In Health, if Sallet-Herbs you can't endure;
Sick, you'll deſire them; or for Food, or Cure.
As to the other part of the Controverſie, which concerns us, αιματοφαγοι, and Occidental Blood-Eaters; ſome Grave and Learn'd Men of late ſeem to ſcruple the preſent Uſage, whilſt they ſee the Prohibition appearing, and to carry ſuch a Face of Antiquity, 95Scripture, 96Councils, 97Canons, 98Fathers; Imperial Conſtitutions, and Univerſal Practice, unleſs it be  among us of theſe Tracts of Europe, whither, with other Barbarities, that of eating the Blood and Animal Life of Creatures firſt was brought; and by our Mixtures with the Goths, Vandals, and other Spawn of Pagan Scythians; grown a Cuſtom, and ſince which I am perſuaded more Blood has been ſhed between Chriſtians than there ever was before the Water of the Flood covered this Corner of the World: Not that I impute it only to our eating Blood; but ſometimes wonder how it hap'ned that ſo ſtrict, ſo ſolemn and famous a Sanction not upon a Ceremonial Account; but (as ſome affirm) a Moral and Perpetual from Noah, to whom the Conceſſion of eating Fleſh was granted, and that of Blood forbidden (nor to this Day once revok'd) and whilſt there alſo ſeems to lie fairer Proofs than for moſt other Controverſies agitated among Chriſtians, ſhould be ſo generally forgotten, and give place to ſo many other impertinent Diſputes and Cavels about other ſuperſtitious Fopperies, which frequently end in Blood and cutting of Throats.
As to the Reaſon of this Prohibition, its favouring of Cruelty excepted, (and that by Galen, and other experienc'd Phyſicians, the eating Blood is condemn'd as unwholſome, cauſing Indigeſtion and Obſtructions) if a poſitive  Command of Almighty God were not enough, it ſeems ſufficiently intimated; becauſe Blood was the Vehicle of the Life and Animal Soul of the Creature: For what other myſterious Cauſe, as haply its being always dedicated to Expiatory Sacrifices, &c. it is not for us to enquire. 'Tis ſaid, that Juſtin Martyr being asked, why the Chriſtians of his time were permitted the eating Fleſh and not the Blood? readily anſwer'd, That God might diſtinguiſh them from Beaſts, which eat them both together. 'Tis likewiſe urg'd, that by the Apoſtolical Synod (when the reſt of the Jewiſh Ceremonies and Types were aboliſh'd) this Prohibition was mention'd as a thing 99neceſſary, and rank'd with Idolatry, which was not to be local or temporary; but univerſally injoyn'd to converted Strangers and Proſelytes, as well as Jews: Nor could the Scandal of neglecting to obſerve it, concern them alone, after ſo many Ages as it was and ſtill is in continual Uſe; and thoſe who tranſgreſs'd, ſo ſeverely puniſh'd, as by an Imperial Law to be ſcourg'd to Blood and Bone: Indeed, ſo terrible was the Interdiction, that Idolatry excepted (which was alſo Moral and perpetual) nothing in Scripture  ſeems to be more expreſs. In the mean time, to relieve all other Scruples, it does not, they ſay, extend to that ακρβεια of thoſe few diluted Drops of Extravaſated Blood, which might happen to tinge the Juice and Gravy of the Fleſh (which were indeed to ſtrain at a Gnat) but to thoſe who devour the Venal and Arterial Blood ſeparately, and in Quantity, as a choice Ingredient of their luxurious Preparations and Apician Tables.
But this, and all the reſt will, I fear, ſeem but Oleribus verba facere, and (as the Proverb goes) be Labour-in-vain to think of preaching down Hogs-Puddings, and uſurp the Chair of Rabby-Buſy: And therefore what is advanc'd in Countenance of the Antediluvian Diet, we leave to be ventilated by the Learned, and ſuch as Curcellæus, who has borrow'd of all the Ancient Fathers, from Tertullian, Hierom, S. Chryſoſtom, &c. to the later Doctors and Divines, Lyra, Toſtatus, Dionyſius Carthuſianus, Pererius, amongſt the Pontificians; of Peter Martyr, Zanchy, Aretius, Jac. Capellus, Hiddiger, Cocceius, Bochartus, &c. amongſt the Proteſtants; and inſtar omnium, by Salmaſius, Grotius, Voſſius, Blundel: In a Word, by the Learn'd of both Perſuaſions, favourable enough to theſe Opinions, Cajetan and Calvin only excepted,  who hold, that as to Abſtinence from Fleſh, there was no poſitive Command or Impoſition concerning it; but that the Uſe of Herbs and Fruit was recommended rather for Temperance ſake, and the Prolongation of Life: Upon which ſcore I am inclin'd to believe that the ancient θεραωενται, and other devout and contemplative Sects, diſtinguiſh'd themſelves; whoſe Courſe of Life we have at large deſcrib'd in 100Philo (who liv'd and taught much in Gardens) with others of the Abſtemious Chriſtians; among whom, Clemens brings in St. Mark the Evangeliſt himſelf, James our Lord's Brother. St. John, &c. and with ſeveral of the devout Sex, the famous Diaconeſſe Olympias, mention'd by Palladius (not to name the reſt) who abſtaining from Fleſh, betook themſelves to Herbs and Sallets upon the Account of Temperance, and the Vertues accompanying it; and concerning which the incomparable Grotius declares ingenuouſly his Opinion to be far from cenſuring, not only thoſe who forbear the eating Fleſh and Blood, Experimenti Cauſa, and for Diſcipline ſake; but ſuch as forbear ex Opinione, and (becauſe it has been the ancient Cuſtom) provided they blam'd none who freely  us'd their Liberty; and I think he's in the right.
But leaving this Controverſie (ne nimium extra oleas) it has often been objected, that Fruit, and Plants, and all other things, may ſince the Beginning, and as the World grows older, have univerſally become Effœte, impair'd and diverted of thoſe Nutritious and tranſcendent Vertues they were at firſt endow'd withal: But as this is begging the Queſtion, and to which we have already ſpoken; ſo all are not agreed that there is any, the leaſt 101Decay in Nature, where equal Induſtry and Skill's apply'd. 'Tis true indeed, that the Ordo Foliatorum, Feuillantines (a late Order of Aſcetic Nuns) amongſt other Mortifications, made Trial upon the Leaves of Plants alone, to which they would needs confine themſelves; but were not able to go through that thin and meagre Diet: But then it would be enquir'd whether they had not firſt, and from their very Childhood, been fed and brought up with Fleſh, and better Suſtenance till they enter'd the Cloyſter; and what the Vegetables and the Preparation of them were allow'd by their Inſtitution? Wherefore this is nothing to our Modern Uſe  of Sallets, or its Diſparagement. In the mean time, that we ſtill think it not only poſſible, but likely, and with no great Art or Charge (taking Roots and Fruit into the Basket) ſubſtantially to maintain Mens Lives in Health and Vigour: For to this, and leſs than this, we have the Suffrage of the great 102Hippocrates himſelf; who thinks, ab initio etiam hominum (as well as other Animals) tali victu uſum eſſe, and needed no other Food. Nor is it an inconſiderable Speculation, That ſince all Fleſh is Graſs (not in a Figurative, but Natural and Real Senſe) Man himſelf, who lives on Fleſh, and I think upon no Earthly Animal whatſoever, but ſuch as feed on Graſs, is nouriſh'd with them ſtill; and ſo becoming an Incarnate Herb, and Innocent Canibal, may truly be ſaid to devour himſelf.
We have ſaid nothing of the Lotophagi, and ſuch as (like St. John the Baptiſt, and other religious Aſcetics) were Feeders on the Summities and Tops of Plants: But as divers of thoſe, and others we have mention'd, were much in times of Streights, Perſecutions, and other Circumſtances, which did not in the leaſt make it a Pretence, exempting them from Labour, and other Humane Offices, by enſnaring Obligations  and vows (never to be uſeful to the Publick, in whatever Exigency) ſo I cannot but take Notice of what a Learned Critic ſpeaking of Mens neglecting plain and Eſſential Duties, under Colour of exerciſing themſelves in a more ſublime Courſe of Piety, and being Righteous above what is commanded (as thoſe who ſeclude themſelves in Monaſteries) that they manifeſtly diſcover exceſſive Pride, Hatred of their Neighbour, Impatience of Injuries; to which add, Melancholy Plots and Machinations; and that he must be either ſtupid, or infected with the ſame Vice himſelf, who admires this εθελοπεριοσοθρησκεια, or thinks they were for that Cauſe the more pleaſing to God. This being ſo, what may we then think of ſuch Armies of Hermits, Monks and Friers, who pretending to juſtifie a miſtaken Zeal and meritorious Abſtinence; not only by a peculiar Diet and Diſtinction of Meats (which God without Diſtinction has made the moderate Uſe of common and 103indifferent amongſt Chriſtians) but by other ſordid Uſages, and unneceſſary Hardſhips, wilfully prejudice their Health and Conſtitution? and through a ſingular manner of living, dark and Saturnine; whilſt  they would ſeem to abdicate and forſake the World (in Imitation, as they pretend, of the Ancient Eremites) take care to ſettle, and build their warm and ſtately Neſts in the moſt Populous Cities, and Places of Reſort; ambitious doubtleſs of the Peoples Veneration and Opinion of an extraordinary Sanclity; and therefore flying the Deſarts, where there is indeed no uſe of them; and flocking to the Towns and Cities where there is leſs, indeed none at all; and therefore no Marvel that the Emperour Valentinian baniſhed them the Cities, and Conſtantine Copronymus finding them ſeditious, oblig'd them to marry, to leave their Cells, and live as did others. For of theſe, ſome there are who ſeldom ſpeak, and therefore edifie none; ſleep little, and lie hard, are clad naſtily, and eat meanly (and oftentimes that which is unwholſom) and therefore benefit none; Not becauſe they might not, both for their own, and the Good of others, and the Publick; but becauſe they will not; Cuſtom, and a prodigious 104Sloth accompanying it; which renders it ſo far from Penance, and the Mortification pretended, that they know not how to live, or ſpend their  Time otherwiſe. This, as I have often conſider'd, ſo was I glad to find it juſtly perſtring'd, and taken notice of by a 105Learned Perſon, amongſt others of his uſeful Remarks abroad.
'Theſe, ſays he, willingly renouncing the innocent Comforts of Life, plainly ſhew it to proceed more from a chagrin and moroſe Humour, than from any true and ſerious Principle of ſound Religion; which teaches Men to be uſeful in their Generations, ſociable and communicative, unaffected, and by no means ſingular and fantaſtic in Garb and Habit, as are theſe (forſooth) Fathers (as they affect to be call'd) ſpending their Days in idle and fruitleſs Forms, and tedious Repetitions; and thereby thinking to merit the Reward of thoſe Ancient, and truly pious Solitaries, who, God knows, were driven from their Countries and Repoſe, by the Incurſions of barbarous Nations (whilſt theſe have no ſuch Cauſe) and compell'd to Auſterities, not of their own chuſing and making, but the publick Calamity; and to labour with their Hands for their own, and others neceſſary Support, as well as with with their Prayers and holy Lives, Examples  to all the World: And ſome of theſe indeed (beſsides the Solitaries of the Thebaid, who wrought for abundance of poor Chriſtians, ſick, and in Captivity) I might bring in, as ſuch who deſerv'd to have their Names preſerv'd; not for their rigorous Fare, and uncouth Diſguiſes; but for teaching that the Grace of Temperance and other Vertues, conſiſted in a cheerful, innocent, and profitable Conversation.
And now to recapitulate what other Prerogatives the Hortulan Proviſion has been celebrated for, beſsides its Antiquity, Health and Longævity of the Antediluvians; that Temperance, Frugality, Leiſure, Eaſe, and innumerable other Vertues and Advantages, which accompany it, are no leſs attributable to it. Let us hear our excellent Botaniſt 106Mr. Ray.
'The Uſe of Plants (ſays he) is all our Life long of that univerſal Importance and Concern,  that we can neither live nor ſubſiſt in any Plenty with Decency, or Conveniency or be ſaid to live indeed at all without them: whatſoever Food is neceſſary to ſuſtain us, whatſoever contributes to delight and refreſh us, are ſupply'd and brought forth out of that plentiful and abundant ſtore: and ah, how much more innocent, ſweet and healthful, is a Table cover'd with theſe, than with all the reeking Fleſh of butcher'd and ſlaughter'd Animals: Certainly Man by Nature was never made to be a Carnivorous Creature; nor is he arm'd at all for Prey and Rapin, with gag'd and pointed Teeth and crooked Claws, ſharp'ned to rend and tear: But with gentle Hands to gather Fruit and Vegetables, and with Teeth to chew and eat them: Nor do we ſo much as read the Uſe of Fleſh for Food, was at all permitted him, till after the Univerſal Deluge, &c.
To this might we add that tranſporting Conſideration, becoming both our Veneration and Admiration of the infinitely wiſe and glorious Author of Nature, who has given to Plants ſuch aſtoniſhing Properties; ſuch fiery Heat in ſome to warm and cheriſh, ſuch Coolneſs in others to temper and refreſh, ſuch pinguid Juice to nouriſh and feed the Body, ſuch quickening Acids  to compel the Appetite, and grateful vehicles to court the Obedience of the Palate, ſuch Vigour to renew and ſupport our natural Strength, ſuch raviſhing Flavour and Perfumes to recreate and delight us: In ſhort, ſuch ſpirituous and active Force to animate and revive every Faculty and Part, to all the kinds of Human, and, I had almoſt ſaid Heavenly Capacity too. What ſhall we add more? Our Gardens preſent us with them all; and whilſt the Shambles are cover'd with Gore and Stench, our Sallets ſcape the Insults of the Summer Fly, purifies and warms the Blood againſt Winter Rage: Nor wants there Variety in more abundance, than any of the former Ages could ſhew.
Survey we their Bills of Fare, and Numbers of Courſes ſerv'd up by Athenæus, dreſt with all the Garniſh of Nicander and other Grecian Wits: What has the Roman Grand Sallet worth the naming? Parat Convivium, The Gueſts are nam'd indeed, and we are told,
—— 107Varias, quas habet hortus opes?
How richly the Garden's ſtor'd:
In quibus eſt Luctuca ſedens, & tonſile porrum, Nee deeſt ructatrix Mentha, nec herba ſalax, &c.
Lettuce, Leeks, Mint, Rocket, Colewort-Tops, with Oyl and Eggs, and ſuch an Hotch-Pot following (as the Cook in Plautus would deſervedly laugh at). But how infinitely out-done in this Age of ours, by the Variety of ſo many rare Edules unknown to the Ancients, that there's no room for the Compariſon. And, for Magnificence, let the Sallet dreſt by the Lady for an Entertainment made by Jacobus Catſius (deſcrib'd by the Poet 108Barlæus) ſhew; not at all yet out-doing what we every Day almoſt find at our Lord Mayor's Table, and other great Perſons, Lovers of the Gardens; that ſort of elegant Cookery being capable of ſuch wonderful Variety, tho' not altogether wanting of old, if that be true which is related to us of 109Nicomedes a certain King of Bithynia, whoſe Cook made him a Pilchard (a Fiſh he exceedingly long'd for) of a well diſſembl'd Turnip, carv'd in its Shape, and dreſt with Oyl, Salt, and Pepper, that ſo deceiv'd, and yet pleaſed the Prince, that he commended it for the beſt Fiſh he had ever eaten. Nor does all this exceed what every induſtrious Gardiner may innocently enjoy, as well as the greateſt Potentate on Earth.
Vitellius his Table, to which every Day
All Courtiers did a conſtant Tribute pay,
Could nothing more delicious afford
Than Nature's Liberality.
Help'd with a little Art and Induſtry,
Allows the meaneſt Gard'ners Board,
The Wanton Taſte no Fiſh or Fowl can chuſe,
For which the Grape or Melon ſhe would loſe.
Tho' all th' Inhabitants of Sea and Air.
Be lifted in the Glutton's Bill of Fare;
Yet ſtill the Sallet, and the Fruit we ſee
Plac'd the third Story high in all her Luxury.
So the Sweet 110Poet, whom I can never part with for his Love to this delicious Toil, and the Honour he has done me.
Verily, the infinite Plenty and Abundance, with which the benign and bountiful Author of Nature has ſtor'd the whole Terreſtrial World, more with Plants and Vegetables than with any other Proviſion whatſoever; and the Variety not only equal, but by far exceeding the Pleaſure and Delight of Taſte (above all the Art of the Kitchen, than ever 111Apicius  knew) ſeems loudly to call, and kindly invite all her living Inhabitants (none excepted) who are of gentle Nature, and moſt uſeful, to the ſame Hoſpitable and Common-Board, which firſt ſhe furniſh'd with Plants and Fruit, as to their natural and genuine Paſture; nay, and of the moſt wild, and ſavage too ab origine: As in Paradiſe, where, as the Evangelical 112Prophet adumbrating the future Glory of the Catholick Church, (of which that happy Garden was the Antitype) the Wolf and the Lamb, the angry and furious Lion, ſhould eat Graſs and Herbs together with the Ox. But after all, latet anguis in herba, there's a Snake in the Graſs; Luxury, and Exceſs in our moſt innocent Fruitions. There was a time indeed when the Garden furniſh'd Entertainments for the moſt Renown'd Heroes, virtuous and excellent Perſons; till the Blood-thirſty and Ambitious, over-running the Nations, and by Murders and Rapine rifl'd the World, to tranſplant its Luxury to its new Miſtriſs, Rome. Thoſe whom heretofore 113two Acres of Land would have ſatisfied, and  plentifully maintain'd; had afterwards their very Kitchens almoſt as large as their firſt Territories: Nor was that enough: Entire 114Foreſts and Parks, Warrens and Fiſh-Ponds, and ample Lakes to furniſh their Tables, ſo as Men could not live by one another without Oppreſſion: Nay, and to ſhew how the beſt, and moſt innocent things may be perverted; they chang'd thoſe frugal and inemptas Dapes of their Anceſtors, to that Height and Profuſion; that we read of 115Edicts and Sumptuary Laws, enacted to reſtrain even the Pride and Exceſs of Sallets. But ſo it was not when the Peaſe-Field ſpread a Table for the Conquerors of the World, and their Grounds were cultivated Vomere laureato, & triumphali aratore: The greateſt Princes took the Spade and the Plough-Staff in the ſame Hand they held the Sceptre; and the Nobleſt 116Families thought it no Diſhonour, to derive their Names from Plants and Sallet-Herbs; They arriv'd, I ſay to that Pitch of ingroſſing all that was but green, and could be vary'd by  the Cook (Heu quam prodiga ventris!) that, as Pliny tells us (non ſine pudore, not without blushing) a poor Man could hardly find a Thiſtle to dreſs for his Supper; or what his hungry 117Aſs would not touch, for fear of pricking his Lips.
Verily the Luxury of the Eaſt ruin'd the greateſt Monarchies; firſt, the Perſian, then the Grecian, and afterwards Rome her ſelf: By what Steps, ſee elegantly describ'd in Old 118Gratius the Faliſcian, deploring his own Age compar'd with the former:
O quantum, & quoties decoris fruſtrata paterni!
At qualis noſtris, quam ſimplex menſa Camillis!
Qui tibi cultus erat poſt tot, ſerrane, triumphos?
Ergo illi ex habitu, virtutiſq; indole priſcæ,
Impoſuere orbi Romam caput:——
But as theſe were the Senſual and Voluptuous, who abus'd their Plenty, ſpent their Fortunes and ſhortned their Lives by their Debauches; ſo never did they taſte the Delicaces, and true Satisfaction of a ſober Repaſt, and the infinite Conveniences of what a well-ſtor'd Garden affords; ſo elegantly deſcrib'd by the 119Naturaliſt, as coſting neither Fuel nor Fire to boil, Pains or time to gather and prepare, Res expedita & parata ſemper: All was ſo near at hand, readily dreſt, and of ſo eaſie Digeſtion; as neither to offend the Brain, or dull the Senſes; and in the greateſt Dearth of Corn, a little Bread ſuffic'd. In all Events,
Panis ematur, Olus, Vini Sextarius adde
Queis humana ſibi doleat natura negatis.
Bread, Wine and wholſome Sallets you may buy,
What Nature adds beſides is Luxury.
They could then make an honeſt Meal, and dine upon a Sallet without ſo much as a Grain, of Exotic Spice; And the Potagere was in ſuch Reputation, that ſhe who neglected her Kitchen-Garden (for that was ſtill the Good-Woman's Province) was never reputed a tolerable Huſ-wife: Si veſpertinus ſubitò te oppreſſerit hoſpes, ſhe was never ſurpriz'd, had all (as we ſaid) at hand, and could in a Trice ſet forth an handſome Sallet: And if this was Happineſs, Convictus facilis ſine arte menſa (as the Poet reckons) it was here in Perfection. In a Word, ſo univerſal was the Sallet, that the 120Un-bloody Shambles (as Pliny calls them) yielded the 121Roman State a more conſiderable Cuſtom (when there was little more than honeſt Cabbage and Worts) than almoſt any thing beſsides brought to Market.
They ſpent not then ſo much precious time as afterwards they did, gorging themſelves with Fleſh and Fiſh, ſo as hardly able to riſe, without reeking and reeling from Table.
122——Vides ut pallidus omnis
Cœna deſurgat dubia? quin corpus onuſtum
Heſternis vitiis, animum quoque prægravat unà,
Atque affigit humo divinæ particulam auræ.
See but how pale they look, how wretchedly,
With Yeſterday's Surcharge diſturb'd they be!
Nor Body only ſuff'ring, but the Mind,
That nobler Part, dull'd and depreſs'd we find.
Drowſie and unapt for Buſineſs, and other nobler Parts of Life.
Time was before Men in thoſe golden Days: Their Spirits were brisk and lively.
——Ubi dicto citius curata ſopori
Membra dedit, Vegetus præſcripta ad munera ſurgit.
With ſhorter, but much ſweeter Sleep content,
Vigorous and freſh, about their Buſineſs went.
And Men had their Wits about them; their Appetites were natural, their Sleep molli ſub arbore, ſound, ſweet, and kindly: That excellent Emperour Tacitus being us'd to ſay of Lettuce, that he did ſomnum ſe mercari when  he eat of them, and call'd it a ſumptuous Feaſt, with a Sallet and a ſingle Pullet, which was uſually all the Fleſh-Meat that ſober Prince eat of; whilſt Maximinus (a profeſs'd Enemy to Sallet) is reported to have ſcarce been ſatisfied, with ſixty Pounds of Fleſh, and Drink proportionable.
There was then alſo leſs expenſive Grandure, but far more true State; when Conſuls, great Stateſmen (and ſuch as atchiev'd the most renown'd Actions) ſup'd in their Gardens; not under coſtly, gilded, and inlaid Roofs, but the ſpreading Platan; and drank of the Chryſtal Brook, and by Temperance, and healthy Frugality, maintain'd the Glory of Sallets, Ah, quanta innocentiore victu! with what Content and Satisfaction! Nor, as we ſaid, wanted there Variety; for ſo in the moſt bliſsful Place, and innocent State of Nature, See how the firſt Empreſs of the World Regal's her Celeſtial Gueſt:
123With ſav'ry Fruit of Taſte to pleaſe
True Appetite, —— and brings
Whatever Earth's all-bearing Mother yields
——Fruit of all kinds, in Coat
Rough, or ſmooth-Rind, or bearded Husk, or Shell.
Heaps with unſparing Hand: For Drink the Grape
She cruſhes, inoffenſive Mouſt, and Meaches
From many a Berry, and from ſweet Kernel preſt,
She temper'd dulcid Creams.——
Then for the Board.
——Rais'd of a graſſy Turf
The Table was, and Moſſy Seats had round;
And on the ample Meaths from Side to Side,
All Autumn pil'd: Ah Innocence,
Thus, the Hortulan Proviſion of the 124Golden Age fitted all Places, Times and Perſons; and when Man is reſtor'd to that State again, it will be as it was in the Beginning.
But now after all (and for Cloſe of all) Let none yet imagine, that whilſt we juſtifie our preſent Subject through all the Topics of Panegyric, we would in Favour of the Sallet, dreſt with all its Pomp and Advantage turn Mankind to Graſs again; which were ungratefully to neglect the Bounty of Heaven, as well as his  Health and Comfort: But by theſe Noble Inſtances and Examples, to reproach the Luxury of the preſent Age; and by ſhewing the infinite Bleſſing and Effects of Temperance, and the Vertues accompanying it; with how little Nature, and a 125Civil Appetite may be happy, contented with moderate things, and within a little Compaſs, reſerving the reſt, to the nobler Parts of Life. And thus of old,
Hoc erat in votis, modus agri non ita magnus, &c.
He that was poſſeſs'd of a little Spot of Ground, and well-cultivated Garden, with other moderate Circumſtances, had 126Hæredium. All that a modeſt Man could well deſire. Then,
127Happy the Man, who from Ambition freed,
A little Garden, little Field does feed.
The Field gives frugal Nature what's requird;
The Garden what's luxuriouſly deſir'd:
The ſpecious Evils of an anxious Life,
He leaves to Fools to be their endleſs Strife.
O Fortunatos nimium bona ſi ſua norint Horticulos!
T ho' it was far from our firſt Intention to charge this ſmall Volume and Diſcourſe concerning Crude Sallets, with any of the following Receipts: Yet having ſince received them from an Experienc'd Houſewife; and that they may poſſibly be uſeful to correct, preſerve and improve our Acetaria, we have allow'd them Place as an Appendant Variety upon Occaſion: Nor account we it the leaſt Diſhonour to our former Treatiſe, that we kindly entertain'd them; ſince (beſides divers Learned Phyſicians, and ſuch as have ex profeſſo written de Re Cibaria) we have the Examples of many other 128Noble and Illuſtrious Perſons both among the Ancient and Modern.
1. Artichoak. Clear it of the Leaves and cut the Bottoms in pretty thin Slices or Quarters; then fry them in freſh Butter with ſome Parſley, till it is criſp, and the Slices tender; and ſo diſh them with other freſh melted Butter.
How a Poiverade is made, and the Bottoms preſerv'd all the Winter, See Acetaria. p. 5, 6.
Aſhen-keys. See Pickle.
Aſparagus. See Pickle.
Carrot. See Pudding.
Champignon. See Mushroom.
2. Cheſſnut. Roaſted under the Embers, or dry fryed, till they ſhell, and quit their Husks, may be ſlit; the Juice of Orange ſqueezed on a Lump of hard Sugar diſſolv'd; to which add ſome Claret Wine.
Herbs. See Pudding and Tart.
Limon. See Pickle.
3. Muſhroom. Chuſe the ſmall, firm and white Buttons, growing upon ſweet Paſture  Grounds, neither under, or about any Trees: ſtrip off the upper Skin, and pare away all the black ſpungy Bottom part; then ſlice them in quarters, and caſt them in Water a while to cleanſe: Then Boil them in freſh Water, and a little ſweet Butter; (ſome boil them a quarter of an hour firſt) and then taking them out, dry them in a Cloth, preſſing out the Water, and whilſt hot, add the Butter; and then boiling a full Hour (to exhauſt the Malignity) ſhift them in another clean Water, with Butter, as before till they become ſufficiently tender. Then being taken out, pour upon them as much ſtrong Mutton (or other) Broth as will cover them, with ſix Spoonfuls of White-Wine, twelve Cloves, as many Pepper-Corns, four ſmall young Onions, half an Handful of Perſly bound up with two or three Spriggs of Thyme, an Anchovy, Oyſters raw, or pickl'd; a little Salt, ſweet Butter; and ſo let them ſtew. See Acetar. p. 26.
Prepared, and cleans'd as above, and caſt into Fountain-Water, to preſerve them from growing black; Boil them in freſh Water and Salt; and whilſt on the Fire, caſt in the Muſhrooms, letting them boil till they become tender: Then ſtew them leiſurely between two Diſhes (the Water being drained from them) in a third Part of White-Wine  and Butter, a ſmall Bundle of ſweet Herbs at diſcretion. To theſe add Broth as before, with Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Anchovies (one is ſufficient) Oysters, &c. a ſmall Onion, with the green Stem chopt ſmall; and laſtly, ſome Mutton-Gravy, rubbing the Diſh gently with a Clove of Garlick, or ſome Rocombo Seeds in its ſtead. Some beat the Yolk of a freſh Egg with Vinegar, and Butter, and a little Pepper.
In France ſome (more compendiouſly being peel'd and prepared) caſt them into a Pipkin, where, with the Sweet Herbs, Spices, and an Onion they ſtew them in their own Juice, without any other Water or Liquor at all; and then taking out the Herbs and Onion, thicken it with a little Butter, and ſo eat them.
The large Muſhrooms well cleanſed, &c. being cut into quarters and ſtrewed with Pepper and Salt, are broil'd on the Grid-iron, and eaten with freſh Butter.
Being freſh gathered, cleans'd, &c. and cut in Pieces, ſtew them in Water and Salt; and being taken forth, dry them with a Cloth: Then putting them into an Earth-Glazed Pot, ſet them into the  Oven after the Bread is drawn: Repeat this till they are perfectly dry; and reſerve them in Papers to crumble into what Sauce you pleaſe. For the reſt, ſee Pickle.
4. Muſtard. Procure the beſt and weightieſt Seed: caſt it into Water two or three times, till no more of the Husk ariſe: Then taking out the ſound (which will ſink to the Bottom) rub it very dry in warm courſe Cloths, ſhewing it alſo a little to the Fire in a Diſh or Pan. Then ſtamp it as ſmall as to paſs through a fine Tiffany Sieve: Then ſlice ſome Horſe-Radiſh and lay it to ſoak in ſtrong Vinegar, with a ſmall Lump of hard Sugar (which ſome leave out) to temper the Flower with, being drained from the Radiſh, and ſo pot it all in a Glaz'd Mug, with an Onion, and keep it well ſtop'd with a Cork upon a Bladder, which is the more cleanly: But this Receit is improv'd, if inſtead of Vinegar, Water only, or the Broth of powder'd Beef be made uſe of. And to ſome of this Muſtard adding Verjuice, Sugar, Claret-Wine, and Juice of Limon, you have an excellent Sauce to any ſort of Fleſh or Fiſh.
Note, that a Pint of good Seed is enough to make at one time, and to keep freſh a competent while. What part of it does not paſs the Sarſe, may be beaten again; and you may reſerve the  Flower in a well cloſed Glaſs, and make freſh Muſtard when you pleaſe. See Acetaria, p. 38, 67.
Naſturtium. Vide Pickle.
Orange. See Limon in Pickle.
5. Parſnip. Take the large Roots, boil them, and ſtrip the Skin: Then ſlit them long-ways into pretty thin Slices; Flower and fry them in freſh Butter till they look brown. The sauce is other ſweet Butter melted. Some ſtrow Sugar and Cinamon upon them. Thus you may accomodate other Roots.
There is made a Maſh or Pomate of this Root, being boiled very tender with a little freſh Cream; and being heated again, put to it ſome Butter, a little Sugar and Juice of Limon; diſh it upon Sippets; ſometimes a few Corinths are added.
Peny-royal. See Pudding.
Artichoaks. See Acetaria, p. 5.
7. Aſhen-keys. Gather them young, and boil them in three or four Waters to extract the Bitterneſs; and when they feel tender, prepare a Syrup  of ſharp White-Wine Vinegar, Sugar, and a little Water. Then boil them on a very quick Fire, and they will become of a green Colour, fit to be potted ſo ſoon as cold.
8. Aſparagus. Break off the hard Ends, and put them in White-Wine Vinegar and Salt, well covered with it; and ſo let them remain for ſix Weeks: Then taking them out, boil the Liquor or Pickle, and ſcum it carefully. If need be, renew the Vinegar and Salt; and when 'tis cold, pot them up again. Thus may one keep them the whole Year.
9. Beans. Take ſuch as are freſh, young, and approaching their full Growth. Put them into a ſtrong Brine of White-Wine Vinegar and Salt able to bear an Egg. Cover them very cloſe, and ſo will they be preſerved twelve Months: But a Month before you uſe them, take out what Quantity you think ſufficient for your ſpending a quarter of a Year (for ſo long the ſecond Pickle will keep them ſound) and boil them in a Skillet of freſh Water, till they begin to look green, as they ſoon will do. Then placing them one by one, (to drain upon a clean courſe Napkin) range them Row by Row in a Jarr, and cover them with Vinegar, and what Spice you pleaſe; ſome Weight being laid upon  them to keep them under the Pickle. Thus you may preſerve French-Beans, Harico's, &c. the whole Year about.
10. Broom-Buds and Pods. Make a ſtrong Pickle, as above; ſtir it very well, till the Salt be quite diſſolved, clearing off the Dregs and Scum. The next Day pour it from the Bottom; and having rubbed the Buds dry pot them up in a Pickle-Glaſs, which ſhould be frequently ſhaken, till they ſink under it, and keep it well ſtopt and covered.
Thus may you-pickle any other Buds. Or as follows:
11. Of Elder. Take the largeſt Buds, and boil them in a Skillet with Salt and Water, ſufficient only to ſcald them; and ſo (being taken off the Fire) let them remain covered till Green; and then pot them with Vinegar and Salt, which has had one Boil up to cleanſe it.
12. Collyflowers. Boil them till they fall in Pieces: Then with ſome of the Stalk, and worſt of the Flower, boil it in a part of the Liquor till pretty ſtrong: Then being taken off, ſtrain it; and when ſettled, clear it from the Bottom. Then with Dill, Groſs Pepper, a pretty Quantity of Salt, when cold, add as much Vinegar as will make it  ſharp, and pour all upon the Collyflower; and ſo as to keep them from touching one another; which is prevented by putting Paper cloſe to them.
Cornelians are pickled like Olives.
13. Cowſlips. Pick very clean; to each Pound of Flowers allow about one Pound of Loaf Sugar, and one Pint of White-Wine Vinegar, which boil to a Syrup, and cover it ſcalding-hot. Thus you may pickle Clove-gillyflowers, Elder, and other Flowers, which being eaten alone, make a very agreeable Salletine.
14. Cucumbers. Take the Gorkems, or ſmaller Cucumbers; put them into Rape-Vinegar, and boyl, and cover them ſo cloſe, as none of the Vapour may iſſue forth; and alſo let them ſtand till the next day: Then boil them in freſh White-Wine Vinegar, with large Mace, Nutmeg, Ginger, white Pepper, and a little Salt, (according to diſcretion) ſtraining the former Liquor from the Cucumbers; and ſo place them in a Jarr, or wide mouthed Glaſs, laying a litle Dill and Fennel between each Rank; and covering all with the freſh ſcalding-hot Pickle, keep all cloſe, and repeat it daily, till you find them ſufficiently green.
In the ſame ſort Cucumbers of the largeſt ſize, being peel'd and cut into thin Slices, are very delicate.
Wiping them clean, put them in a very ſtrong Brine of Water and Salt, to ſoak two or three Hours or longer, if you ſee Cause: Then range them in the Jarr or Barrellet with Herbs and Spice as uſual; and cover them with hot Liquor made of two parts Beer-Vinegar, and one of White-Wine Vinegar: Let all be very well cloſed. A Fortnight after ſcald the Pickle again, and repeat it, as above: Thus they will keep longer, and from being ſo ſoon ſharp, eat crimp and well taſted, tho' not altogether ſo green. You may add a Walnut-Leaf, Hyſop, Coſtmary, &c. and as ſome do, ſtrow on them a little Powder of Roch-Allom, which makes them firm and eatable within a Month or ſix Weeks after.
Take the biggest Cucumbers (and moſt of the Mango ſize) that look green: Open them on the Top or Side; and ſcooping out the Seeds, ſupply their Place with a ſmall Clove of Garlick, or ſome Roccombo Seeds. Then put them into an Earthen Glazed Jarr, or wide-mouth'd Glaſs, with as much White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them. Boil them in the Vinegar with Pepper, Cloves, Mace, &c. and when off the Fire, as much Salt as will  make a gentle Brine; and ſo pour all boyling-hot on the Cucumbers, covering them cloſe till the next Day. Then put them with a little Dill, and Pickle into a large Skillet; and giving them a Boyl or two, return them into the Veſſel again: And when all is cold, add a good Spoonful of the beſt Muſtard, keeping it from the Air, and ſo have you an excellent Mango. When you have occaſion to take any out, make uſe of a Spoon, and not your Fingers.
Elder. See Buds.
Flowers. See Cowſlips, and for other Flowers.
15. Limon. Take Slices of the thick Rind Limon, Boil and ſhift them in ſeveral Waters, till they are pretty tender: Then drain and wipe them dry with a clean Cloth; and make a Pickle with a little White-Wine Vinegar, one part to two of fair Water, and a little Sugar, carefully ſcum'd. When all is cold, pour it on the peel'd Rind, and cover it all cloſe in a convenient Glaſs Jarr. Some make a Syrup of Vinegar, White-Wine and Sugar not too thick, and pour it on hot.
16. Melon. The abortive and after-Fruit of Melons being pickled as Cucumber, make an excellent Sallet. 
17. Muſhrom. Take a Quart of the beſt White-Wine Vinegar; as much of White-Wine, Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg a pretty Quantity, beaten together: Let the Spice boil therein to the Conſumption of half; then taken off, and being cold, pour the Liquour on the Muſhroms; but leave out the boiled Spice, and caſt in of the ſame ſort of Spice whole, the Nutmeg only ſlit in Quarters, with ſome Limon-Peel, white Pepper; and if you pleaſe a whole raw Onion, which take out again when it begins to periſh.
The Muſhroms peel'd, &c. throw them into Water, and then into a Sauce-Pan, with ſome long Pepper, Cloves, Mace, a quarter'd Nutmeg, with an Onion, Shallot, or Roccombo-Seed, and a little Salt. Let them all boil a quarter of an hour on a very quick Fire: Then take out and cold, with a pretty Quantity of the former Spice, boil them in ſome White-Wine; which (being cold) caſt upon the Muſhroms, and fill up the Pot with the beſt White-Wine, a Bay-Leaf or two, and an Handful of Salt: Then cover them with the Liquor; and if for long keeping, pour Sallet-Oil over all, tho' they will be preſerved a Year without it.
They are ſometimes boil'd in Salt and Water, with ſome Milk, and laying them in the Colender  to drain, till cold, and wiped dry, caſt them into the Pickle with the White-Wine, Vinegar and Salt, grated Nutmeg, Ginger bruiſed, Cloves, Mace, white Pepper and Limon-Peel; pour the Liquor on them cold without boiling.
18. Naſturtium Indicum. Gather the Buds before they open to flower; lay them in the Shade three or four Hours, and putting them into an Earthen Glazed Veſſel, pour good Vinegar on them, and cover it with a Board. Thus letting it ſtand for eight or ten Days: Then being taken out, and gently preſs'd, caſt them into freſh Vinegar, and let them ſo remain as long as before. Repeat this a third time, and Barrel them up with Vinegar and a little Salt.
Orange. See Limon.
20. Potato. The ſmall green Fruit (when about the ſize of the Wild Cherry) being pickled, is an agreeable Sallet. But the Root being roaſted under the Embers, or otherwiſe, open'd with a Knife, the Pulp is butter'd in the Skin, of which it will take up a good Quantity, and is ſeaſoned with a little Salt and Pepper. Some eat them with Sugar together in the Skin, which has a pleaſant Crimpneſs. They are alſo ſtew'd and bak'd in Pyes, &c. 
21. Purſelan. Lay the Stalks in an Earthen Pan; then cover them with Beer-Vinegar and Water, keeping them down with a competent Weight to imbibe, three Days: Being taken out, put them into a Pot with as much White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them again; and cloſe the Lid with Paſte to keep in the Steam: Then ſet them on the Fire for three or four Hours, often ſhaking and ſtirring them: Then open the Cover, and turn and remove thoſe Stalks which lie at the Bottom, to the Top, and boil them as before, till they are all of a Colour. When all is cold, pot them with freſh White-Wine Vinegar, and ſo you may preſerve them the whole Year round.
22. Radiſh. The Seed-Pods of this Root being pickl'd, are a pretty Sallet.
23. Sampier. Let it be gathered about Michaelmas (or the Spring) and put two or three hours into a Brine of Water and Salt; then into a clean Tin'd Braſs Pot, with three parts of ſtrong White-Wine Vinegar, and one part of Water and Salt, or as much as will cover the Sampier, keeping the Vapour from iſſuing out, by paſting down the Pot-lid, and ſo hang it over the Fire for half an Hour only. Being taken off, let it remain covered till it be cold; and then put it up into ſmall Barrels  or Jars, with the Liquor, and ſome freſh Vinegar, Water and Salt; and thus it will keep very green. If you be near the Sea, that Water will ſupply the place of Brine. This is the Dover Receit.
24. Walnuts. Gather the Nuts young, before they begin to harden, but not before the Kernel is pretty white: Steep them in as much Water as will more than cover them. Then ſet them on the Fire, and when the water boils, and grows black, pour it off, and ſupply it with freſh, boiling it as before, and continuing to ſhift it till it become clear, and the Nuts pretty tender: Then let them be put into clean Spring Water for two Days, changing it as before with freſh, two or three times within this ſpace: Then lay them to drain, and dry on a clean courſe Cloth, and put them up in a Glaſs Jar, with a few Walnut Leaves, Dill, Cloves, Pepper, whole Mace and Salt; ſtrowing them under every Layer of Nuts, till the Veſſel be three quarters full; and laſtly, repleniſhing it with the beſt Vinegar, keep it well covered; and ſo they will be fit to ſpend within three Months.
The green Nuts prepared as before, cover the Bottom of the Jar with ſome Dill, an Handful of Bay-Salt, &c. and then a Bed of Nuts; and ſo  ſtratum upon ſtratum, as above, adding to the Spice ſome Roccombo-Seeds; and filling the reſt of the Jar with the beſt White-Wine Vinegar, mingled with the beſt Muſtard; and to let them remain cloſe covered, during two or three Months time: And thus have you a more agreeable Mango than what is brought us from abroad; which you may uſe in any Sauce, and is of it ſelf a rich Condiment.
25. Potage Maigre. Take four Quarts of Spring-Water, two or three Onions ſtuck with ſome Cloves, two or three Slices of Limon Peel, Salt, whole white Pepper, Mace, a Raze or two of Ginger, tied up in a fine Cloth (Lawn or Tiffany) and make all boil for half an Hour; Then having Spinage, Sorrel, white Beet-Chard, a little Cabbage, a few ſmall Tops of Cives, waſh'd and pick'd clean, ſhred them well, and caſt them into the Liquor, with a Pint of blue Peaſe boil'd ſoft and ſtrain'd, with a Bunch of ſweet Herbs, the Top and Bottom of a French Roll; and ſo ſuffer it to boil during three Hours; and then diſh it with another ſmall French Roll, and Slices about the Diſh: Some cut Bread in ſlices, and frying them brown (being dried) put them into the Pottage juſt as it is going to be eaten.
The ſame Herbs, clean waſh'd, broken and pulled aſunder only, being put in a cloſe cover'd Pipkin, without any other Water or Liquor, will ſtew in their own Juice and Moiſture. Some add an whole Onion, which after a while ſhould be taken out, remembring to ſeaſon it with Salt and Spice, and ſerve it up with Bread and a Piece of freſh Butter.
26. Pudding of Carrot. Pare off ſome of the Cruſt of Manchet-Bread, and grate of half as much of the reſt as there is of the Root, which muſt alſo be grated: Then take half a Pint of freſh Cream or New Milk, half a Pound of freſh Butter, ſix new laid Eggs (taking out three of the Whites) maſh and mingle them well with the Cream and Butter: Then put in the grated Bread and Carrot, with near half a Pound of Sugar; and a little Salt; ſome grated Nutmeg and beaten Spice; and pour all into a convenient Diſh or Pan, butter'd, to keep the Ingredients from ſticking and burning; ſet it in a quick Oven for about an Hour, and ſo have you a Compoſition for any Root-Pudding.
27. Penny-royal. The Cream, Eggs, Spice, &c. as above, but not ſo much Sugar and Salt: Take a pretty Quantity of Peny-royal and Marigold  flower, &c. very well ſhred, and mingle with the Cream, Eggs, &c. four spoonfuls of Sack; half a Pint more of Cream, and almoſt a Pound of Beef-Suet chopt very ſmall, the Gratings of a Two-penny Loaf, and ſtirring all well together, put it into a Bag flower'd and tie it faſt. It will be boil'd within an Hour: Or may be baked in the Pan like the Carrot-Pudding. The ſauce is for both, a little Roſe-water, leſs Vinegar, with Butter beaten together and poured on it ſweetned with the Sugar Caſter.
Of this Plant diſcreetly dried, is made a moſt wholſom and excellent Tea.
28. Of Spinage. Take a ſufficient Quantity of Spinach, ſtamp and ſtrain out the Juice; put to it grated Manchet, the Yolk of as many Eggs as in the former Compoſition of the Carrot-Pudding; ſome Marrow ſhred ſmall, Nutmeg, Sugar, ſome Corinths, (if you pleaſe) a few Carroways, Roſe, or Orange-flower Water (as you beſt like) to make it grateful. Mingle all with a little boiled Cream; and ſet the Diſh or Pan in the Oven, with a Garniſh of Puff-Paſte. It will require but very moderate Baking. Thus have you Receits for Herb Puddings.
29. Skirret-Milk Is made by boiling the Roots tender, and the Pulp ſtrained out, put into Cream  or new Milk boiled, with three or four Yolks of Eggs, Sugar, large Mace and other Spice, &c. And thus is compoſed any other Root-Milk. See Acetar. p. 42.
30. Tanſie. Take the Gratings or Slices of three Naples-Biſcuits, put them into half a Pint of Cream; with twelve freſh Eggs, four of the Whites caſt out, ſtrain the reſt, and break them with two Spoonfuls of Roſe-water, a little Salt and Sugar, half a grated Nutmeg: And when ready for the Pan, put almoſt a Pint of the Juice of Spinach, Cleaver, Beets, Corn-Sallet, Green Corn, Violet, or Primroſe tender Leaves, (for of any of theſe you may take your choice) with a very ſmall Sprig of Tanſie, and let it be fried ſo as to look green in the Diſh, with a Strew of Sugar and ſtore of the Juice of Orange: ſome affect to have it fryed a little brown and criſp.
31. Tart of Herbs. An Herb-Tart is made thus: Boil freſh Cream or Milk, with a little grated Bread or Naples-Biſcuit (which is better) to thicken it; a pretty Quantity of Chervile, Spinach, Beete (or what other Herb you pleaſe) being firſt par-boil'd and chop'd. Then add Macaron, or Almonds beaten to a Paſte, a little ſweet Butter, the Yolk of five Eggs, three of the Whites rejected.  To theſe ſome add Corinths plump'd in Milk, or boil'd therein, Sugar, Spice at Diſcretion, and ſtirring it all together over the Fire, bake it in the Tart-Pan.
32. Thiſtle. Take the long Stalks of the middle Leaf of the Milky-Thiſtle, about May, when they are young and tender: waſh and ſcrape them, and boil them in Water, with a little Salt, till they are very ſoft, and ſo let them lie to drain. They are eaten with freſh Butter melted not too thin, and is a delicate and wholſome Diſh. Other Stalks of the ſame kind may ſo be treated, as the Bur, being tender and diſarmed of its Prickles, &c.
33. Trufles, and other Tubers, and Boleti, are roaſted whole in the Embers; then ſlic'd and ſtew'd in ſtrong Broth with Spice, &c. as Muſhroms are. Vide Acetar. p. 28.
34. Turnep. Take their Stalks (when they begin to run up to ſeed) as far as they will eaſily break downwards: Peel and tie them in Bundles. Then boiling them as they do Sparagus, are to be eaten with melted Butter. Laſtly,
35. Minc'd, or Sallet-all-sorts. Take Almonds blanch'd in cold Water, cut them round and thin, and ſo leave them in the  Water; Then have pickl'd Cucumbers, Olives, Cornelians, Capers, Berberries, Red-Beet, Buds of Naſturtium, Broom, &c. Purſlan-stalk, Sampier, Aſh-Keys, Walnuts, Muſhrooms (and almoſt of all the pickl'd Furniture) with Raiſins of the Sun ſton'd, Citron and Orange-Peel, Corinths (well cleanſed and dried) &c. mince them ſeverally (except the Corinths) or all together; and ſtrew them over with any Candy'd Flowers, and ſo diſpose of them in the ſame Diſh both mixt, and by themſelves. To theſe add roaſted Maroons, Piſtachios, Pine-Kernels, and of Almonds four times as much as of the reſt, with ſome Roſe-water. Here alſo come in the Pickled Flowers and Vinegar in little China Diſhes. And thus have you an Univerſal Winter-Sallet, or an All ſort in Compendium, fitted for a City Feaſt, and diſtinguiſhed from the Grand-Sallet: which ſhou'd conſiſt of the Green blanch'd and unpickled, under a ſtately Pennaſh of Sellery, adorn'd with Buds and Flowers.
And thus have we preſented you a Taſte of our Engliſh Garden Houſewifry in the matter of Sallets: And though ſome of them may be Vulgar, (as are moſt of the beſt things;) Yet ſhe was willing to impart them, to ſhew the Plenty, Riches and Variety of the Sallet-Garden: And to juſtifie  what has been aſſerted of the Poſſibility of living (not unhappily) on Herbs and Plants, according to Original and Divine Inſtitution, improved by Time and long Experience. And if we have admitted Muſhroms among the reſt (contrary to our Intention, and for Reaſons given, Acet. p. 43.) ſince many will by no means abandon them, we have endeavoured to preſerve them from thoſe pernicious Effects which are attributed to, and really in them: We cannot tell indeed whether they were ſo treated and accommodated for the moſt Luxurious of the Cæſarean Tables, when that Monarchy was in its higheſt Strain of Epicuriſm, and ingroſs'd this Haugout for their ſecond Courſe; whilſt this we know, that 'tis but what Nature affords all her Vagabonds under every Hedge.
And now, that our Sallets may not want a Glaſs of generous Wine of the ſame Growth with the reſt of the Garden to recommend it, let us have your Opinion of the following.
Cowſlip-Wine. To every Gallon of Water put two Pounds of Sugar; boil it an Hour, and ſet it to cool: Then ſpread a good brown Toaſt on both Sides with Yeaſt: But before you make uſe of it, beat ſome Syrup of Citron with it, an Ounce and half of Syrup to each Gallon of Liquor: Then put in the Toaſt whilſt hot, to aſſiſt its Fermentation,  which will ceaſe in two Days; during which time caſt in the Cowſlip-Flowers (a little bruiſed, but not much ſtamp'd) to the Quantity of half a Buſhel to ten Gallons (or rather three Pecks) four Limons ſlic'd, with the Rinds and all. Laſtly, one Pottle of White or Rheniſh Wine; and then after two Days, tun it up in a ſweet Cask. Some leave out all the Syrup.
And here, before we conclude, ſince there is nothing of more conſtant Uſe than good Vinegar; or that has ſo near an Affinity to all our Acetaria, we think it not amiſs to add the following (much approved) Receit.
Vinegar. To every Gallon of Spring Water let there be allowed three Pounds of Malaga-Raiſins: Put them in an Earthen Jarr, and place them where they may have the hotteſt Sun, from May till Michaelmas: Then preſſing them well, Tun the Liquor up in a very ſtrong Iron-Hooped Veſſel to prevent its burſting. It will appear very thick and muddy when newly preſs'd, but will refine in the Veſſel, and be as clear as Wine. Thus let it remain untouched for three Months, before it be drawn off, and it will prove Excellent Vinegar.
Butter. Butter being likewiſe ſo frequent and neceſſary an Ingredient to divers of the foregoing Appendants: It ſhould be carefully melted, that it turn not to an Oil; which is prevented by melting  it leiſurely, with a little fair Water at the Bottom of the Diſh or Pan; and by continual ſhaking and ſtirring, kept from boiling or over-heating, which makes it rank.
Other rare and exquiſite Liquors and Teas (Products of our Gardens only) we might ſuper-add, which we leave to our Lady Houſewives, whoſe Province indeed all this while it is.
Lord Viſcount Brouncker, Chancellor to the Late Qu. Conſort, now Dowager. The Right Honourable Cha. Montague, Eſq; Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Si quid temporis à civilibus negotiis quibis totum jam intenderat animum, ſuffurari potuit, colendis agris, priſcos illos Romanos Numam Pompilium, Cincinnatum, Catonem, Fabios, Cicerones, alioſque virtute claros viros imitare; qui in magno honore conſtituti, vites putare, ſtercorare agros, & irrigare nequaquam turpe & inhone ſtum putarunt. In Vit. Plin. 2.
Ut hujuſmodi hiſtoriam vix dum incohatum, non ante abſolvendam putem.
Exitio terras quam dabit una dies. D. Raius Praefat. Hiſt. Plan.
Olera a frigidis diſtinct. See Spartianus in Peſcennio. Salmaſ. in Jul. Capitolin.
Panis erat primis virides mortalibus Herbae;
Quas tellus nullo ſollicitante dabat.
Et modo carpebant vivaci ceſpite gramen;
Nunc epulæ tenera fronde cacumen erant.
Ovid, Faſtor. IV.
καλουμεν γαρ λαχανα τα ωρος την ημενεραν χρειαν, Theophraſt. Plant. 1. VII. cap. 7.
Gen. I. 29.
Salmaſ. in Solin. againſt Hieron. Mercurialis.
Galen. 2R. Aliment. cap. l. Et Simp. Medic. Averroes, lib. V. Golloc.
Plin. lib. XIX. c. 4.
Convictus facilis, fine arte menſa. Mart. Ep. 74.
Απυνρον τροφυι, which Suidas calls λαχανα, Olera quæ cruda ſumuntur ex Aceto. Harduin in loc.
Plin. H. Nat. lib. xix. cap. 8.
De R.R. cap. clvii.
'Εφθος, δοσικυος, απαλος, αλυως, ουρητικος. Athen.
Cucumis elixus delicatior, innocentior. Athenæus.
In Lactuca occultatum à Venere Adonin cecinit Callimachus, quod Allegoricè interpretatus Athenæus illuc referendum putat, quod in Venerem hebetiores fiant Lactucis vescentes assiduè.
Vopiſeus Tacit. For the reſt both of the Kinds and Vertues of Lettuce, See Plin. H. Nat. l. xix. c. 8. and xx. c. 7. Fernel. &c.
Hor. Epod. II.
De Simp. Medic. L. vii.
Lib. ii. cap. 3.
Exoneraturas Ventrem mihi Villica Malvas Attulit, & varias, quas habet hortus, Opes.
Mart. Lib. x.
And our ſweet Poet:
——Nulla eſt humanior herba,
Nulla magis ſuavi commoditate bona eſt,
Omnia tam placidè regerat, blandéquerelaxat,
Emollítque vias, nec ſinit eſſe rudes.
Cowl. Plan. L. 4.
Cic ad Attic.
Sueton in Claudi.
Sen. Ep. lxiii.
Plin. N.H. l. xxi. c. 23.
Tranſact. Philoſ. Num. 202.
Apitius, lib. vii. cap. 13.
Philoſ. Tranſact. Num. 69. Journey to Paris.
Pratenſibus optima fungis Natura eſt: aliis male creditur. Hor. Sat. l. 7. Sat. 4.
Bacon Nat. Hiſt. 12. Cent. vii. 547, 548, &c.
Gaffend. Vita Peirſ. l. iv. Raderus Mart. l. Epig. xlvi. In ponticum—ſays, within four Days.
O Sanctas gentes, quibus haec naſcuntur in hortis
Numina****—— Juv. Sat. 15.
ωρα το ραδιως φαινες, quia tertio à fatu die appareat.
De diaeta lib. ii. cap. 25.
De Aliment. Facult. lib. ii.
Philoſ. Tranſact. Vol. xvii. Num. 205. p. 970.
Plin. H. Nat. Lib. xix. cap. 3. & xx. c. 22. See Jo. Tzetzes Chil. vi. 48. & xvii. 119.
Spanheim, De uſu & Praeſt. Numiſ. Diſſert. 4to. It was ſometimes alſo the Reverſe of Jupiter Hammon.
ουδ αν ειδοιης γε μοι
Τον πλουτον αυτον κ— το Βατ-ου σιλφιον.
Aristoph. in Pluto. Act. iv. Sc. 3.
Of which ſome would have it a courſer ſort inamoeni odoris, as the ſame Comedian names it in his Equites, p. 239. and 240. Edit. Basil. See likewiſe this diſcuſs'd, together with its Properties, moſt copiouſly, in Jo. Budaeus a Stapul. Comment. in Theophraſt. lib. vi. cap. 1. and Bauhin. Hiſt. Plant. lib. xxvii. cap. 53.
Vide Cardanum de uſu Cibi.
Ουδ οσον ιν μαλαχη τε κ— ασφοδελω μεγ ονειαρ
Κρυψαντες γαρ εχουσι θεοι Βιον ανθρωποισι.
Concerning this of Inſects, See Mr. Ray's Hiſt. Plant. li. l. cap. 24.
The poyſon'd Weeds: I have ſeen a Man, who was ſo poyſon'd with it, that the Skin peel'd off his Face, and yet he never touch'd it, only looked on it as he paſs'd by. Mr. Stafford, Philoſ. Tranſact. Vol. III. Num. xl. p. 794.
Cowley, Garden, Miſcel. Stanz. 8.
Sapores minime Conſentientes και συμπλεκο-υας ουχι συμφωνους αφας: Haec deſpicere ingenioſi eſt artificis: Neither did the Artiſt mingle his Proviſions without extraordinary Study and Conſideration: Αλλα μιξας παντα κατα συμφωνιαν. Horum ſingulis ſeorſum aſſumptis, tu expedito: Sic ego tanquam Oraculo jubeo. —— Itaque literarum ignarum Coquum, tu cum videris, & qui Democriti ſcripta omnia non perlegerit, vel potius, impromptu non habeat, eum deride ut futilem: Ac ilium Mercede conducito, qui Epicuri Canonen uſu plane didicerit, &c. as it follows in the Gaſtronomia of Archeſtratus, Athen. lib. xxiii. Such another Bragadoccio Cook Horace deſcribes
Nec ſibi Coenarum quivis temere arroget artem
Non prius exacta tenui ratione ſaporem.
Sat. lib. ii. Sat. 4.
Milton's Paradiſe Loſt.
Tingat olus ſiccum muria vaſer in calice emptâ
Ipſe ſacrum irrorans piper —— Perſ. Sat. vi.
Dr. Grew, Lect. vi. c. 2. 3.
Muffet, de Diaeta, c. 23.
Dr. Grew, Annat. Plant. Lib. l. Sect. iv. cap. l, &c. See alſo, Tranſact. Num. 107. Vol. ix.
Philoſoph. Tranſact. Vol. III. Num. xl. p. 799.
Mart. Epig. lib. xi. 39.
Athen. l. 2. Of which Change of Diet ſee Plut. iv. Sympoſ. 9. Plinii Epiſt. I. ad Eretrium.
Hor. Sat. I. 2. Sat. 4.
Mart. Ep. l. v. Ep. 17.
Concerning the Uſe of Fruit (beſsides many others) whether beſt to be eaten before, or after Meals? Publiſhed by a Phyſician of Rochel, and render'd out of French into Engliſh. Printed by T. Baſſet in Fleetſtreet.
Achilles, Patroclus, Automedon. Iliad. ix. & alibi.
For ſo ſome pronounce it, V. Athenaeum Deip. Lib. II. Cap. 26 ηδ- quaſi ηδυσμα, perhaps for that it incites Appetite, and cauſes Hunger, which is the beſt Sauce.
Cratinus in Glauco.
Nat. Hiſt. IV. Cent. VII. 130. Se Ariſt. Prob. Sect. xx. Quaeſt. 36. Why ſome Fruits and Plants are beſt raw, others boil'd, roaſted, &c, as becoming ſweeter; but the Crude more ſapid and grateful.
Card. Contradicent. Med. l. iv. Cant. 18. Diphilus not at all. Athenaeus.
Sir Tho. Brown's Miſcel.
Caule ſuburbano qui ficcis crevit in agris Dulcior,——
——Hor. Sat. l. 2. §4.
Tranſact. Philoſ. Num. xxv.
Theſaur. Sanit. c. 2.
As Delcampius interprets the Place.
Scaliger ad Card. Exercit. 213.
Cel. Lib. Cap. 4.
Plin. Nat. Hiſt. l. 3. c. 12.
Hanc brevitatem Vitae (ſpeaking of Horſes) fortaſſe homini debet, Verul. Hist. Vit. & Mort. See this throughly controverted, Macrob. Saturn. l. vii. c. v.
Ariſt. Hiſt. Animal. l. v. c. 14.
Hor. Sat. l. II. Sat. 2. Macr. Sat. l. VII.
Metam. i. Fab. iii. and xv.
Gen. xi. 19.
Porphyr. de Abſtin. Proclum, Jambleum, &c.
Praep. Lv. paſſim.
Tertul. de Tejun. cap. iv. Hieron. adverſ. Jovin.
Sen. Epiſt. 108.
1 Cor. viii. 8. 1. Tim. iv. 1. 3. 14. Rom. ii. 3.
Has Epulas habuit teneri gens aurea mundis
Et cœnæ ingentis tune caput ipſa ſui.
Semide unque meo creverunt corpora ſucco,
Materiam tanti ſanguinis ille dedit.
Tune neque fraus nota eſt, neque vis, neque fœda libido;
Hæc nimis proles ſæva caloris erat.
Si ſacrum illorum, ſit deteſtabile nomen,
Qui primi ſervæ regne dedere gulæ.
Hinc vitiis patefacta via eſt, morbiſq; ſecutis ſas,
Se lethi facies exeruere novæ.
Ah, fuge crudeles Animantum ſanguine men
Quaſque tibi obſonat mors inimica dapes.
Poſcas tandem æger, ſi ſanus negligis, herbas.
Eſſe cibus nequeunt? at medicamen erunt.
Colci Plaut. lib. 1. Lactuca.
Can. Apoſt. 50.
Clem. Paedag. Lib. ii. c. l. Vide Prudent. Hymn. χα θημερινων: Nos Oloris Coma, nos ſiliqua facta legumine multitudo paraveris innocuis Epulis.
xv. Acts, 20, 29.
Philo de Vit. Contemp. Joſeph. Antiq. Lib. 13 Cap. 9.
Hippoc. de vetere Medicina, Cap. 6, 7.
2 Tim. iv. 3.
This, with their prodigious Ignorance. See Mab. des Etudes Monaſt. Part. 2. c. 17.
Dr. Liſter's Journey to Paris. See L'Apocalyps de Meliton, ou Revelation des Myſteres Cenobitiques.
Plantarum uſus latiſſimè patet, & in omni vitæ parte occurrit, ſine illis lautè, ſine illis commodè non vivitur, ac nec vivitur omninò. Quæcunque ad victu neceſſaria ſunt, quæcunque ad delicias faciunt, è locupletiſſimo ſuo penu abundè ſubminiſtrant: Quantò ex eis menſa innocentior, mundior, ſalubrior, quam ex animalium cæde & Laniena! Homo certè naturâ animal carnivorum non eſt; nullis ad prædam & rapinam armis inſtructum; non dentibus exertis & ferratis, non unguibus aduncis: Manus ad fructos colligendos, dentes ad mandendos comparati; nee legimus ſe ante diluvium carnes ad eſum conceſſas, &c. Raii Hiſt. Plant. Lib. 1. cap. 24.
Mart. lib. x. Epig. 44.
Barl. Eleg. lib. 3.
Athen. Deip. l. i.
Cowley, Garden. Stanz. 6.
Hence in Macrobius Sat. lib. vii. c. 5. we find Eupolis the Comedian in his Æges, bringing in Goats boaſting the Variety of their Food, Βοσκομεθ υλης απο παντοδαωης, ελατης, &c. After which follows a Banquet of innumerable ſorts.
Eſa. lxv. 25.
Bina tunc jugera populo Romano ſatis erat, nullique majorem modum attribuit, quo ſervos paulo ante principis Neronis, contemptis hujus ſpatii Virdariis, piſcinas juvat habere majores, gratumque, ſi non aliquem & culinas. Plin. Hiſt. Nat. lib. xviii. c. 2.
Interea guſtus elements per omnia quaerunt. Juv. Sat. 4.
Cicero. Epiſt. Lib. 7. Ep. 26. Complaining of a coſtly Sallet, that had almoſt coſt him his Life.
Valeriana, That of Lectucini, Achilleia, Lyſimachia, Fabius, Cicero, Lentulus, Piſo, &c. a Fabis, Cicere, Lente, Piſis bene ſerendis dicti, Plin.
Mirum eſſet non licere pecori Carduis veſci, non licet plebei, &c. And in another Place, Quoniam portenta quoque terrarum in ganeam vertimus, etiam quæ refugeant quadrupeded conſciæ, Plin. Hiſt. Nat. l. xix. c. 8.
Gra. Faliſc. Gyneget. Waſ. See concerning this Exceſs Macr. Sat. l. 2. c. 9. & ſequ.
Horti maximè placebant, quia non egerent igni, parceréntque ligno, expedita res, & parata ſemper, unde Acetaria appellantur, facilia concoqui, nee oneratura ſenſum cibo, & quæ minime accenderent deſiderium panis. Plin. Hiſt. Nat. Lib. xix. c. 4. And of this exceeding Frugality of the Romans, till after the Mithridatic War, ſee Athenæus Deip. Lib. 6. cap. 21. Horat. Serm. Sat. 1.
Nequam eſſe in domo matrem familias (etenim hæc cura Fœminæ dicebatur) ubi indiligens eſſet hortus.
Alterum ſuccidium. Cic. in Catone. Tiberias had a Tribute of Skirrits paid him.
Hor. Sat. l. 2. Vix prae vino ſuſtinet palpebras, eunti in conſilium, &c. See the Oration of C. Titius de Leg. Fan. Mac Sat. l. 2. c. 12.
Milton's Paradiſe, 1. v. ver. 228.
At victus illa ætas cui ſecimus aurea nomen
Fructibus arboreis, & quas humus educat herbis
Fortunata fuit.——Met. xv.
Bene moratus venter.
Fœlix, quem miſera procul ambitione remotum,
Parvus ager placide, parvus & hortus, alit.
Præbet ager quicquid frugi natura requirit,
Hortus habet quicquid luxurioſa petit,
Cætera follicitæ ſpecioſa incommoda vitæ
Permittit ſtultis quærere, habere malis.
Cowley, Pl. lib. iv.
Plin. Athenæus, Macrobius, Bacon, Boyle, Digby, &c.
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