The Project Gutenberg EBook of Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of
John Fiske, by John Fiske

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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of John Fiske

Author: John Fiske

Editor: David Widger

Release Date: February 20, 2019 [EBook #58925]

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Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology

By John Fiske




By John Fiske




Or The Puritan Theocracy In Its Relations To Civil And Religious Liberty

By John Fiske





By John Fiske



Man’s Place in Nature as affected by the Copernican Theory.
As affected by Darwinism.
On the Earth there will never be a Higher Creature than Man.
The Origin of Infancy.
The Dawning of Consciousness.
Lengthening of Infancy and Concomitant Increase of Brain-Surface.
Change in the Direction of the Working of Natural Selection.
Growing Predominance of the Psychical Life.
The Origins of Society and of Morality.
Improvableness of Man.
Universal Warfare of Primeval Men.
First checked by the Beginnings of Industrial Civilisation.
Methods of Political Development, and Elimination of Warfare.
End of the Working of Natural Selection upon Man. Throwing off the Brute-Inheritance.
The Message of Christianity.
The Question as to a Future Life.


By John Fiske

With Maps, Index, And A Biographical Sketch


chap page
Biographical Sketch. vii
I. Introduction. 1
II. The Colonies In 1750. 4
III The French Wars, and the First Plan of Union. 26
IV. The Stamp Act, and the Revenue Laws. 39
V. The Crisis. 78
VI. The Struggle for the Centre. 104
VII. The French Alliance. 144
VIII. Birth of the Nation. 182
Collateral Reading. 195
Index. 197


Facing Page
Invasion of Canada 92
Washington's Campaigns in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 119
Burgoyne's Campaign 130
The Southern Campaign 172


By John Fiske

VOL. I (of II)



The American aborigines 1
Question as to their origin 2, 3
Antiquity of man in America 4
Shell-mounds, or middens 4, 5
The Glacial Period 6, 7
Discoveries in the Trenton gravel 8
Discoveries in Ohio, Indiana, and Minnesota 9
Mr. Cresson's discovery at Claymont, Delaware 10
The Calaveras skull 11
Pleistocene men and mammals 12, 13
Elevation and subsidence 13, 14
Waves of migration 15
The Cave men of Europe in the Glacial Period 16
The Eskimos are probably a remnant of the Cave men 17-19
There was probably no connection or intercourse by water between ancient America and the Old World 20
There is one great American red race 21
Different senses in which the word "race" is used 21-23
No necessary connection between differences in culture and differences in race 23
Mr. Lewis Morgan's classification of grades of culture 24-32
Distinction between Savagery and Barbarism 25
Origin of pottery 25
Lower, middle, and upper status of savagery 26
Lower status of barbarism; it ended differently in the two hemispheres; in ancient America there was no pastoral stage of development 27
(p. xx) Importance of Indian corn 28
Tillage with irrigation 29
Use of adobe-brick and stone in building 29
Middle status of barbarism 29, 30
Stone and copper tools 30
Working of metals; smelting of iron 30
Upper status of barbarism 31
The alphabet and the beginnings of civilization 32
So-called "civilizations" of Mexico and Peru 33, 34
Loose use of the words "savagery" and "civilization" 35
Value and importance of the term "barbarism" 35, 36
The status of barbarism is most completely exemplified in ancient America 36, 37
Survival of bygone epochs of culture; work of the Bureau of Ethnology 37, 38
Tribal society and multiplicity of languages in aboriginal America 38, 39
Tribes in the upper status of savagery; Athabaskans, Apaches, Shoshones, etc. 39
Tribes in the lower status of barbarism; the Dakota group or family 40
The Minnitarees and Mandans 41
The Pawnee and Arickaree group 42
The Maskoki group 42
The Algonquin group 43
The Huron-Iroquois group 44
The Five Nations 45-47
Distinction between horticulture and field agriculture 48
Perpetual intertribal warfare, with torture and cannibalism 49-51
Myths and folk-lore 51
Ancient law 52, 53
The patriarchal family not primitive 53
"Mother-right" 54
Primitive marriage 55
The system of reckoning kinship through females only 56
Original reason for the system 57
The primeval human horde 58, 59
Earliest family-group; the clan 60
"Exogamy" 60
(p. xxi) Phratry and tribe 61
Effect of pastoral life upon property and upon the family 61-63
The exogamous clan in ancient America 64
Intimate connection of aboriginal architecture with social life 65
The long houses of the Iroquois 66, 67
Summary divorce 68
Hospitality 68
Structure of the clan 69, 70
Origin and structure of the phratry 70, 71
Structure of the tribe 72
Cross-relationships between clans and tribes; the Iroquois Confederacy 72-74
Structure of the confederacy 75, 76
The "Long House" 76
Symmetrical development of institutions in ancient America 77, 78
Circular houses of the Mandans 79-81
The Indians of the pueblos, in the middle status of barbarism 82, 83
Horticulture with irrigation, and architecture with adobe 83, 84
Possible origin of adobe architecture 84, 85
Mr. Cushing's sojourn at Zuñi 86
Typical structure of the pueblo 86-88
Pueblo society 89
Wonderful ancient pueblos in the Chaco valley 90-92
The Moqui pueblos 93
The cliff-dwellings 93
Pueblo of Zuñi 93, 94
Pueblo of Tlascala 94-96
The ancient city of Mexico was a great composite pueblo 97
The Spanish discoverers could not be expected to understand the state of society which they found there 97, 98
Contrast between feudalism and gentilism 98
Change from gentile society to political society in Greece and Rome 99, 100
(p. xxii) First suspicions as to the erroneousness of the Spanish accounts 101
Detection and explanation of the errors, by Lewis Morgan 102
Adolf Bandelier's researches 103
The Aztec Confederacy 104, 105
Aztec clans 106
Clan officers 107
Rights and duties of the clan 108
Aztec phratries 108
The tlatocan, or tribal council 109
The cihuacoatl, or "snake-woman" 110
The tlacatecuhtli, or "chief-of-men" 111
Evolution of kingship in Greece and Rome 112
Mediæval kingship 113
Montezuma was a "priest-commander" 114
Mode of succession to the office 114, 115
Manner of collecting tribute 116
Mexican roads 117
Aztec and Iroquois confederacies contrasted 118
Aztec priesthood; human sacrifices 119, 120
Aztec slaves 121, 122
The Aztec family 122, 123
Aztec property 124
Mr. Morgan's rules of criticism 125
He sometimes disregarded his own rules 126
Amusing illustrations from his remarks on "Montezuma's Dinner" 126-128
The reaction against uncritical and exaggerated statements was often carried too far by Mr. Morgan 128, 129
Great importance of the middle period of barbarism 130
The Mexicans compared with the Mayas 131-133
Maya hieroglyphic writing 132
Ruined cities of Central America 134-138
They are probably not older than the twelfth century 136
Recent discovery of the Chronicle of Chicxulub 138
Maya culture very closely related to Mexican 139
The "Mound-Builders" 140-146
The notion that they were like the Aztecs 142
Or, perhaps, like the Zuñis 143
(p. xxiii) These notions are not well sustained 144
The mounds were probably built by different peoples in the lower status of barbarism, by Cherokees, Shawnees, and other tribes 144, 145
It is not likely that there was a "race of Mound Builders" 146
Society in America at the time of the Discovery had reached stages similar to stages reached by eastern Mediterranean peoples fifty or sixty centuries earlier 146, 147


Stories of voyages to America before Columbus; the Chinese 148
The Irish. 149
Blowing and drifting; Cousin, of Dieppe 150
These stories are of small value 150
But the case of the Northmen is quite different 151
The Viking exodus from Norway 151, 152
Founding of a colony in Iceland, A. D. 874 153
Icelandic literature 154
Discovery of Greenland, A. D. 876 155, 156
Eric the Red, and his colony in Greenland, A. D. 986 157-161
Voyage of Bjarni Herjulfsson 162
Conversion of the Northmen to Christianity 163
Leif Ericsson's voyage, A. D. 1000; Helluland and Markland 164
Leif's winter in Vinland 165, 166
Voyages of Thorvald and Thorstein 167
Thorfinn Karlsefni, and his unsuccessful attempt to found a colony in Vinland, A. D. 1007-10 167-169
Freydis, and her evil deeds in Vinland, 1011-12 170, 171
Voyage into Baffin's Bay, 1135 172
Description of a Viking ship discovered at Sandefiord, in Norway 173-175
(p. xxiv) To what extent the climate of Greenland may have changed within the last thousand years 176, 177
With the Northmen once in Greenland, the discovery of the American continent was inevitable 178
Ear-marks of truth in the Icelandic narratives 179, 180
Northern limit of the vine 181
Length of the winter day 182
Indian corn 182, 183
Winter weather in Vinland 184
Vinland was probably situated somewhere between Cape Breton and Point Judith 185
Further ear-marks of truth; savages and barbarians of the lower status were unknown to mediæval Europeans 185, 186
The natives of Vinland as described in the Icelandic narratives 187-193
Meaning of the epithet "Skrælings" 188, 189
Personal appearance of the Skrælings 189
The Skrælings of Vinland were Indians,—very likely Algonquins 190
The "balista" or "demon's head" 191, 192
The story of the "uniped" 193
Character of the Icelandic records; misleading associations with the word "saga" 194
The comparison between Leif Ericsson and Agamemnon, made by a committee of the Massachusetts Historical Society, was peculiarly unfortunate and inappropriate 194, 197
The story of the Trojan War, in the shape in which we find it in Greek poetry, is pure folk-lore 195
The Saga of Eric the Red is not folk-lore 196
Mythical and historical sagas 197
The western or Hauks-bók version of Eric the Red's Saga 198
The northern or Flateyar-bók version 199
Presumption against sources not contemporary 200
Hauk Erlendsson and his manuscripts 201
The story is not likely to have been preserved to Hauk's time by oral tradition only 202
Allusions to Vinland in other Icelandic documents 202-207
(p. xxv) Eyrbyggja Saga 203
The abbot Nikulas, etc. 204
Ari Fródhi and his works 204
His significant allusion to Vinland 205
Other references 206
Differences between Hauks-bók and Flateyar-bók versions 207
Adam of Bremen 208
Importance of his testimony 209
His misconception of the situation of Vinland 210
Summary of the argument 211-213
Absurd speculations of zealous antiquarians 213-215
The Dighton inscription was made by Algonquins, and has nothing to do with the Northmen 213, 214
Governor Arnold's stone windmill 215
There is no reason for supposing that the Northmen founded a colony in Vinland 216
No archæological remains of them have been found south of Davis strait 217
If the Northmen had founded a successful colony, they would have introduced domestic cattle into the North American fauna 218
And such animals could not have vanished and left no trace of their existence 219, 220
Further fortunes of the Greenland colony 221
Bishop Eric's voyage in search of Vinland, 1121 222
The ship from Markland, 1347 223
The Greenland colony attacked by Eskimos, 1349 224
Queen Margaret's monopoly, and its baneful effects 225
Story of the Venetian brothers, Nicolò and Antonio Zeno 226
Nicolò Zeno wrecked upon one of the Færoe islands 227
He enters the service of Henry Sinclair, Earl of the Orkneys and Caithness 228
Nicolò's voyage to Greenland, cir. 1394 229
Voyage of Earl Sinclair and Antonio Zeno 229, 230
Publication of the remains of the documents by the younger Nicolò Zeno, 1558 231
The Zeno map 232, 233
Queer transformations of names 234-236
(p. xxvi) The name Færoislander became Frislanda 236
The narrative nowhere makes a claim to the "discovery of America" 237
The "Zichmni" of the narrative means Henry Sinclair 238
Bardsen's "Description of Greenland" 239
The monastery of St. Olaus and its hot spring 240
Volcanoes of the north Atlantic ridge 241
Fate of Gunnbjörn's Skerries, 1456 242
Volcanic phenomena in Greenland 242, 243
Estotiland 244
Drogio 245
Inhabitants of Drogio and the countries beyond 246
The Fisherman's return to Frislanda 247
Was the account of Drogio woven into the narrative by the younger Nicolò? 248
Or does it represent actual experiences in North America? 249
The case of David Ingram, 1568 250
The case of Cabeza de Vaca, 1528-36 251
There may have been unrecorded instances of visits to North America 252
The pre-Columbian voyages made no real contributions to geographical knowledge 253
And were in no true sense a discovery of America 254
Real contact between the eastern and western hemisphere was first established by Columbus 255


Why the voyages of the Northmen were not followed up 256
Ignorance of their geographical significance 257
Lack of instruments for ocean navigation 257
Condition of Europe in the year 1000 258, 259
It was not such as to favour colonial enterprise 260
The outlook of Europe was toward Asia 261
Routes of trade between Europe and Asia 262
(p. xxvii) Claudius Ptolemy and his knowledge of the earth 263
Early mention of China 264
The monk Cosmas Indicopleustes 265
Shape of the earth, according to Cosmas 266, 267
His knowledge of Asia 268
The Nestorians 268
Effects of the Saracen conquests 269
Constantinople in the twelfth century 270
The Crusades 270-274
Barbarizing character of Turkish conquest 271
General effects of the Crusades 272
The Fourth Crusade 273
Rivalry between Venice and Genoa 274
Centres and routes of mediæval trade 275, 276
Effects of the Mongol conquests 277
Cathay, origin of the name 277
Carpini and Rubruquis 278
First knowledge of an eastern ocean beyond Cathay 278
The data were thus prepared for Columbus; but as yet nobody reasoned from these data to a practical conclusion 279
The Polo brothers 280
Kublai Khan's message to the Pope 281
Marco Polo and his travels in Asia 281, 282
First recorded voyage of Europeans around the Indo-Chinese peninsula 282
Return of the Polos to Venice 283
Marco Polo's book, written in prison at Genoa, 1299; its great contributions to geographical knowledge 284, 285
Prester John 285
Griffins and Arimaspians 286
The Catalan map, 1375 288, 289
Other visits to China 287-291
Overthrow of the Mongol dynasty, and shutting up of China 291
First rumours of the Molucca islands and Japan 292
The accustomed routes of Oriental trade were cut off in the fifteenth century by the Ottoman Turks 293
Necessity for finding an "outside route to the Indies" 294

(p. xxviii) CHAPTER IV.

Question as to whether Asia could be reached by sailing around Africa 295
Views of Eratosthenes 296
Opposing theory of Ptolemy 297
Story of the Phœnician voyage in the time of Necho 298-300
Voyage of Hanno 300, 301
Voyages of Sataspes and Eudoxus 302
Wild exaggerations 303
Views of Pomponius Mela 304, 305
Ancient theory of the five zones 306, 307
The Inhabited World, or Œcumene, and the Antipodes 308
Curious notions about Taprobane (Ceylon) 309
Question as to the possibility of crossing the torrid zone 309
Notions about sailing "up and down hill" 310, 311
Superstitious fancies 311, 312
Clumsiness of ships in the fifteenth century 312
Dangers from famine and scurvy 313
The mariner's compass; an interesting letter from Brunetto Latini to Guido Cavalcanti 313-315
Calculating latitudes and longitudes 315
Prince Henry the Navigator 316-326
His idea of an ocean route to the Indies, and what it might bring 318
The Sacred Promontory 319
The Madeira and Canary islands 320-322
Gil Eannes passes Cape Bojador 323
Beginning of the modern slave-trade, 1442 323
Papal grant of heathen countries to the Portuguese crown 324, 325
Advance to Sierra Leone 326
Advance to the Hottentot coast 326, 327
Note upon the extent of European acquaintance with (p. xxix) savagery and the lower forms of barbarism previous to the fifteenth century 327-329
Effect of the Portuguese discoveries upon the theories of Ptolemy and Mela 329, 330
News of Prester John; Covilham's journey 331
Bartholomew Dias passes the Cape of Good Hope and enters the Indian ocean 332
Some effects of this discovery 333
Bartholomew Columbus took part in it 333
Connection between these voyages and the work of Christopher Columbus 334


Sources of information concerning the life of Columbus; Las Casas and Ferdinand Columbus 335
The Biblioteca Colombina at Seville 336, 337
Bernaldez and Peter Martyr 338
Letters of Columbus 338
Defects in Ferdinand's information 339, 340
Researches of Henry Harrisse 341
Date of the birth of Columbus; archives of Savona 342
Statement of Bernaldez 343
Columbus's letter of September, 1501 344
The balance of probability is in favour of 1436 345
The family of Domenico Colombo, and its changes of residence 346, 347
Columbus tells us that he was born in the city of Genoa 348
His early years 349-351
Christopher and his brother Bartholomew at Lisbon 351, 352
Philippa Moñiz de Perestrelo 352
Personal appearance of Columbus 353
His marriage, and life upon the island of Porto Santo 353, 354
The king of Portugal asks advice of the great astronomer Toscanelli 355
(p. xxx) Toscanelli's first letter to Columbus 356-361
His second letter to Columbus 361, 362
Who first suggested the feasibleness of a westward route to the Indies? Was it Columbus? 363
Perhaps it was Toscanelli 363, 364
Note on the date of Toscanelli's first letter to Columbus 365-367
The idea, being naturally suggested by the globular form of the earth, was as old as Aristotle 368, 369
Opinions of ancient writers 370
Opinions of Christian writers 371
The "Imago Mundi" of Petrus Alliacus 372, 373
Ancient estimates of the size of the globe and the length of the Œcumene 374
Toscanelli's calculation of the size of the earth, and of the position of Japan (Cipango) 375, 376
Columbus's opinions of the size of the globe, the length of the Œcumene, and the width of the Atlantic ocean from Portugal to Japan 377-380
There was a fortunate mixture of truth and error in these opinions of Columbus 381
The whole point and purport of Columbus's scheme lay in its promise of a route to the Indies shorter than that which the Portuguese were seeking by way of Guinea 381
Columbus's speculations on climate; his voyages to Guinea and into the Arctic ocean 382
He may have reached Jan Mayen island, and stopped at Iceland 383, 384
The Scandinavian hypothesis that Columbus "must have" heard and understood the story of the Vinland voyages 384, 385
It has not a particle of evidence in its favour 385
It is not probable that Columbus knew of Adam of Bremen's allusion to Vinland, or that he would have understood it if he had read it 386
It is doubtful if he would have stumbled upon the story in Iceland 387
If he had heard it, he would probably have classed it with such tales as that of St. Brandan's isle 388
(p. xxxi) He could not possibly have obtained from such a source his opinion of the width of the ocean 388, 389
If he had known and understood the Vinland story, he had the strongest motives for proclaiming it and no motive whatever for concealing it 390-392
No trace of a thought of Vinland appears in any of his voyages 393
Why did not Norway or Iceland utter a protest in 1493? 393
The idea of Vinland was not associated with the idea of America until the seventeenth century 394
Recapitulation of the genesis of Columbus's scheme 395
Martin Behaim's improved astrolabe 395, 396
Negotiations of Columbus with John II. of Portugal 396, 397
The king is persuaded into a shabby trick 398
Columbus leaves Portugal and enters into the service of Ferdinand and Isabella, 1486 398-400
The junto at Salamanca, 1486 401
Birth of Ferdinand Columbus, August 15, 1488 401
Bartholomew Columbus returns from the Cape of Good Hope, December, 1487 402, 403
Christopher visits Bartholomew at Lisbon, cir. September, 1488, and sends him to England 404
Bartholomew, after mishaps, reaches England cir. February, 1490, and goes thence to France before 1492 405-407
The duke of Medina-Celi proposes to furnish the ships for Columbus, but the queen withholds her consent 408, 409
Columbus makes up his mind to get his family together and go to France, October, 1491 409, 410
A change of fortune; he stops at La Rábida, and meets the prior Juan Perez, who writes to the queen 411
Columbus is summoned back to court 411
The junto before Granada, December, 1491 412, 413
Surrender of Granada, January 2, 1492 414
Columbus negotiates with the queen, who considers his terms exorbitant 414-416
Interposition of Luis de Santangel 416
(p. xxxii) Agreement between Columbus and the sovereigns 417
Cost of the voyage 418
Dismay at Palos 419
The three famous caravels 420
Delay at the Canary islands 421
Martin Behaim and his globe 422, 423
Columbus starts for Japan, September 6, 1492 424
Terrors of the voyage:—1. Deflection of the needle 425
2. The Sargasso sea 426, 427
3. The trade wind 428
Impatience of the crews 428
Change of course from W. to W. S. W 429, 430
Discovery of land, October 12, 1492 431
Guanahani: which of the Bahama islands was it? 432
Groping for Cipango and the route to Quinsay 433, 434
Columbus reaches Cuba, and sends envoys to find a certain Asiatic prince 434, 435
He turns eastward and Pinzon deserts him 435
Columbus arrives at Hayti and thinks it must be Japan 436
His flag-ship is wrecked, and he decides to go back to Spain 437
Building of the blockhouse, La Navidad 438
Terrible storm in mid-ocean on the return voyage 439
Cold reception at the Azores 440
Columbus is driven ashore in Portugal, where the king is advised to have him assassinated 440
But to offend Spain so grossly would be imprudent 441
Arrival of Columbus and Pinzon at Palos; death of Pinzon 442
Columbus is received by the sovereigns at Barcelona 443, 444
General excitement at the news that a way to the Indies had been found 445
This voyage was an event without any parallel in history 446

(p. xxxiii) CHAPTER VI.

The Discovery of America was a gradual process 447, 448
The letters of Columbus to Santangel and to Sanchez 449
Versification of the story by Giuliano Dati 450
Earliest references to the discovery 451
The earliest reference in English 452
The Portuguese claim to the Indies 453
Bulls of Pope Alexander VI. 454-458
The treaty of Tordesillas 459
Juan Rodriguez Fonseca, and his relations with Columbus 460-462
Friar Boyle 462
Notable persons who embarked on the second voyage 463
Departure from Cadiz 464
Cruise among the Cannibal (Caribbee) islands 465
Fate of the colony at La Navidad 466
Building the town of Isabella 467
Exploration of Cibao 467, 468
Westward cruise; Cape Alpha and Omega 468-470
Discovery of Jamaica 471
Coasting the south side of Cuba 472
The "people of Mangon" 473
Speculations concerning the Golden Chersonese 474-476
A solemn expression of opinion 477
Vicissitudes of theory 477, 478
Arrival of Bartholomew Columbus in Hispaniola 478, 479
Mutiny in Hispaniola; desertion of Boyle and Margarite 479, 480
The government of Columbus was not tyrannical 481
Troubles with the Indians 481, 482
Mission of Juan Aguado 482
Discovery of gold mines, and speculations about Ophir 483
Founding of San Domingo, 1496 484
The return voyage to Spain 485
Edicts of 1495 and 1497 486, 487
Vexatious conduct of Fonseca; Columbus loses his temper 487
(p. xxxiv) Departure from San Lucar on the third voyage 488
The belt of calms 489-491
Trinidad and the Orinoco 491, 492
Speculations as to the earth's shape; the mountain of Paradise 494
Relation of the "Eden continent" to "Cochin China" 495
Discovery of the Pearl Coast 495
Columbus arrives at San Domingo 496
Roldan's rebellion and Fonseca's machinations 496, 497
Gama's voyage to Hindustan, 1497 498
Fonseca's creature, Bobadilla, sent to investigate the troubles in Hispaniola 499
He imprisons Columbus 500
And sends him in chains to Spain 501
Release of Columbus; his interview with the sovereigns 502
How far were the sovereigns responsible for Bobadilla? 503
Ovando, another creature of Fonseca, appointed governor of Hispaniola 503, 504
Purpose of Columbus's fourth voyage, to find a passage from the Caribbee waters into the Indian ocean 504, 506
The voyage across the Atlantic 506
Columbus not allowed to stop at San Domingo 507
His arrival at Cape Honduras 508
Cape Gracias a Dios, and the coast of Veragua 509
Fruitless search for the strait of Malacca 510
Futile attempt to make a settlement in Veragua 511
Columbus is shipwrecked on the coast of Jamaica; shameful conduct of Ovando 512
Columbus's last return to Spain 513
His death at Valladolid, May 20, 1506 513
"Nuevo Mundo;" arms of Ferdinand Columbus 514, 515
When Columbus died, the fact that a New World had been discovered by him had not yet begun to dawn upon his mind, or upon the mind of any voyager or any writer 515, 516


Portrait of the author Frontispiece
View and ground-plan of Seneca-Iroquois long house reduced from Morgan's Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines 66
View, cross-section, and ground-plan of Mandan round house, ditto 80
Ground-plan of Pueblo Hungo Pavie, ditto 86
Restoration of Pueblo Hungo Pavie, ditto 88
Restoration of Pueblo Bonito, ditto 90
Ground-plan of Pueblo Peñasca Blanca, ditto 92
Ground-plan of so-called "House of the Nuns" at Uxmal, ditto 133
Map of the East Bygd, or eastern settlement of the Northmen in Greenland, reduced from Rafn's Antiquitates Americanæ 160, 161
Ruins of the church at Kakortok, from Major's Voyages of the Zeni, published by the Hakluyt Society 222
Zeno Map, cir. 1400, ditto 232, 233
Map of the World according to Claudius Ptolemy, cir. A. D. 150, an abridged sketch after a map in Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography Facing 265
Two sheets of the Catalan Map, 1375, from Yule's Cathay, published by the Hakluyt Society 288, 289
Map of the World according to Pomponius Mela, cir. A. D. 50, from Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America 304
Map illustrating Portuguese voyages on the coast of Africa, from a sketch by the author 324
Toscanelli's Map, 1474, redrawn and improved from a sketch in Winsor's America Facing 357
(p. xxxvi) Annotations by Columbus, reduced from a photograph in Harrisse's Notes on Columbus 373
Sketch of Martin Behaim's Globe, 1492, preserved in the city hall at Nuremberg, reduced to Mercator's projection and sketched by the author 422, 423
Sketch of Martin Behaim's Atlantic Ocean, with outline of the American continent superimposed, from Winsor's America 429
Map of the discoveries made by Columbus in his first and second voyages, sketched by the author 469
Map of the discoveries made by Columbus in his third and fourth voyages, ditto 493
Arms of Ferdinand Columbus, from the title-page of Harrisse's Fernand Colomb 515


By John Fiske

"I am uneasy and apprehensive, more so than during the war."
Jay to Washington, June 27, 1786.


Fall of Lord North's ministry 1
Sympathy between British Whigs and the revolutionary party in America 2
It weakened the Whig party in England 3
Character of Lord Shelburne 4
Political instability of the Rockingham ministry 5, 6
Obstacles in the way of a treaty of peace 7, 8
Oswald talks with Franklin 9–11
Grenville has an interview with Vergennes 12
Effects of Rodney's victory 13
Misunderstanding between Fox and Shelburne 14
Fall of the Rockingham ministry 15
Shelburne becomes prime minister 16
Defeat of the Spaniards and French at Gibraltar 17
French policy opposed to American interests 18
The valley of the Mississippi; Aranda's prophecy 19
The Newfoundland fisheries 20
Jay detects the schemes of Vergennes 21
And sends Dr Vaughan to visit Shelburne 22
John Adams arrives in Paris and joins with Jay in insisting upon a separate negotiation with England 23, 24
The separate American treaty, as agreed upon:
1. Boundaries 25
2. Fisheries; commercial intercourse 26
3. Private debts 27
4. Compensation of loyalists 28–32
Secret article relating to the Yazoo boundary 33
Vergennes does not like the way in which it has been done 33
On the part of the Americans it was a great diplomatic victory 34
Which the commissioners won by disregarding the instructions of Congress and acting on their own responsibility 35
The Spanish treaty 36
The French treaty 37
Coalition of Fox with North 38–42
They attack the American treaty in Parliament 43
And compel Shelburne to resign 44
Which leaves England without a government, while for several weeks the king is too angry to appoint ministers 44
Until at length he succumbs to the coalition, which presently adopts and ratifies the American treaty 45
The coalition ministry is wrecked upon Fox's India Bill 46
Constitutional crisis ends in the overwhelming victory of Pitt in the elections of May, 1784 47
And this, although apparently a triumph for the king, was really a death-blow to his system of personal government 48, 49
Cessation of hostilities in America 50
Departure of the British troops 51
Washington resigns his command 52
And goes home to Mount Vernon 53
His "legacy" to the American people 54
The next five years were the most critical years in American history 55
Absence of a sentiment of union, and consequent danger of anarchy 56, 57
European statesmen, whether hostile or friendly, had little faith in the stability of the Union 58
False historic analogies 59
Influence of railroad and telegraph upon the perpetuity of the Union 60
Difficulty of travelling a hundred years ago 61
Local jealousies and antipathies, an inheritance from primeval savagery 62, 63
Conservative character of the American Revolution 64
State governments remodelled; assemblies continued from colonial times 65
Origin of the senates in the governor's council of assistants 66
Governors viewed with suspicion 67
Analogies with British institutions 68
The judiciary 69
Restrictions upon suffrage 70
Abolition of primogeniture, entails, and manorial privileges 71
Steps toward the abolition of slavery and the slave-trade 72–75
Progress toward religious freedom 76, 77
Church and state in Virginia 78, 79
Persecution of dissenters 80
Madison and the Religions Freedom Act 81
Temporary overthrow of the church 82
Difficulties in regard to ordination; the case of Mason Weems 83
Ordination of Samuel Seabury by non-jurors at Aberdeen 84
Francis Asbury and the Methodists 85
Presbyterians and Congregationalists 86
Roman Catholics 87
Except in the instance of slavery, all the changes described in this chapter were favourable to the union of the states 88
But while the state governments, in all these changes, are seen working smoothly, we have next to observe, by contrast, the clumsiness and inefficiency of the federal government 89
The several states have never enjoyed complete sovereignty 90
But in the very act of severing their connection with Great Britain, they entered into some sort of union 91
Anomalous character of the Continental Congress 92
The articles of confederation; they sought to establish a "league of friendship" between the states 93–97
But failed to create a federal government endowed with real sovereignty 98–100
Military weakness of the government 101–103
Extreme difficulty of obtaining a revenue 104, 105
Congress, being unable to pay the army, was afraid of it 106
Supposed scheme for making Washington king 107
Greene's experience in South Carolina 108
Gates's staff officers and the Newburgh address 109
The danger averted by Washington 110, 111
Congress driven from Philadelphia by mutinous soldiers 112
The Commutation Act denounced in New England 113
Order of the Cincinnati 114–117
Reasons for the dread which it inspired 118
Congress finds itself unable to carry out the provisions of the treaty with Great Britain 119
Persecution of the loyalists 120, 121
It was especially severe in New York 122
Trespass Act of 1784 directed against the loyalists 123
Character and early career of Alexander Hamilton 124–126
The case of Rutgers v. Waddington 127, 128
Wholesale emigration of Tories 129, 130
Congress unable to enforce payment of debts to British creditors 131
England retaliates by refusing to surrender the fortresses on the northwestern frontier 132, 133
The barbarous superstitions of the Middle Ages concerning trade were still rife in the eighteenth century 134
The old theory of the uses of a colony 135
Pitt's unsuccessful attempt to secure free trade between Great Britain and the United States 136
Ship-building in New England 137
British navigation acts and orders in council directed against American commerce 138
John Adams tried in vain to negotiate a commercial treaty with Great Britain 139, 140
And could see no escape from the difficulties except in systematic reprisal 141
But any such reprisal was impracticable, for the several states imposed conflicting duties 142
Attempts to give Congress the power of regulating commerce were unsuccessful 143, 144
And the several states began to make commercial war upon one another 145
Attempts of New York to oppress New Jersey and Connecticut 146
Retaliatory measures of the two latter states 147
The quarrel between Connecticut and Pennsylvania over the possession of the valley of Wyoming 148–150
The quarrel between New York and New Hampshire over the possession of the Green Mountains 151–153
Failure of American diplomacy because European states could not tell whether they were dealing with one nation or with thirteen 154, 155
Failure of American credit; John Adams begging in Holland 156, 157
The Barbary pirates 158
American citizens kidnapped and sold into slavery 159
Lord Sheffield's outrageous pamphlet 160
Tripoli's demand for blackmail 161
Congress unable to protect American citizens 162
Financial distress after the Revolutionary War 163, 164
State of the coinage 165
Cost of the war in money 166
Robert Morris and his immense services 167
The craze for paper money 168
Agitation in the southern and middle states 169–171
Distress in New England 172
Imprisonment for debt 173
Rag-money victorious in Rhode Island; the "Know Ye" measures 174–176
Rag-money defeated in Massachusetts; the Shays insurrection 177–181
The insurrection suppressed by state troops 182
Conduct of the neighbouring states 183
The rebels pardoned 184
Timidity of Congress 185, 186
Creation of a national domain beyond the Alleghanies 187, 188
Conflicting claims to the western territory 189
Claims of Massachusetts and Connecticut 189, 190
Claims of New York 190
Virginia's claims 191
Maryland's novel and beneficent suggestion 192
The several states yield their claims in favour of the United States 193, 194
Magnanimity of Virginia 195
Jefferson proposes a scheme of government for the northwestern territory 196
Names of the proposed ten states 197
Jefferson wishes to prohibit slavery in the national domain 198
North Carolina's cession of western lands 199
John Sevier and the state of Franklin 200, 201
The northwestern territory 202
Origin of the Ohio company 203
The Ordinance of 1787 204–206
Theory of folkland upon which the ordinance was based 207
Spain, hearing of the secret article in the treaty of 1783, loses her temper and threatens to shut up the Mississippi River 208, 209
Gardoqui and Jay 210
Threats of secession in Kentucky and New England 211
Washington's views on the political importance of canals between east and west 212
His far-sighted genius and self-devotion 213
Maryland confers with Virginia regarding the navigation of the Potomac 214
The Madison-Tyler motion in the Virginia legislature 215
Convention at Annapolis, Sept 11, 1786 216
Hamilton's address calling for a convention at Philadelphia 217
The impost amendment defeated by the action of New York; last ounce upon the camel's back 218–220
Sudden changes in popular sentiment 221
The Federal Convention meets at Philadelphia, May, 1787 222
Mr. Gladstone's opinion of the work of the convention 223
The men who were assembled there 224, 225
Character of James Madison 226, 227
The other leading members 228
Washington chosen president of the convention 229
Why the proceedings of the convention were kept secret for so many years 230
Difficulty of the problem to be solved 231
Symptoms of cowardice repressed by Washington's impassioned speech 232
The root of all the difficulties; the edicts of the federal government had operated only upon states, not upon individuals, and therefore could not be enforced without danger of war 233–233
The Virginia plan, of which Madison was the chief author, offered a radical cure 236
And was felt to be revolutionary in its character 237–239
Fundamental features of the Virginia plan 240, 241
How it was at first received 242
The House of Representatives must be directly elected by the people 243
Question as to the representation of states brings out the antagonism between large and small states 244
William Paterson presents the New Jersey plan; not a radical cure, but a feeble palliative 245
Straggle between the Virginia and New Jersey plans 246–249
The Connecticut compromise, according to which the national principle is to prevail in the House of Representatives, and the federal principle in the Senate, meets at first with fierce opposition 250, 251
But is at length adopted 252
And proves a decisive victory for Madison and his methods 253
A few irreconcilable members go home in dudgeon 254
But the small states, having been propitiated, are suddenly converted to Federalism, and make the victory complete 255
Vague dread of the future west 255
The struggle between pro-slavery and anti-slavery parties began in the convention, and was quieted by two compromises 256
Should representation be proportioned to wealth or to population? 257
Were slaves to be reckoned as persons or as chattels? 258
Attitude of the Virginia statesmen 259
It was absolutely necessary to satisfy South Carolina 260
The three fifths compromise, suggested by Madison, was a genuine English solution, if ever there was one 261
There was neither rhyme nor reason in it, but for all that, it was the best solution attainable at the time 262
The next compromise was between New England and South Carolina as to the foreign slave-trade and the power of the federal government over commerce 263
George Mason calls the slave-trade an "infernal traffic" 264
And the compromise offends and alarms Virginia 265
Belief in the moribund condition of slavery 266
The foundations of the Constitution were laid in compromise 267
Powers granted to the federal government 268
Use of federal troops in suppressing insurrections 269
Various federal powers 270
Provision for a federal city under federal jurisdiction 271
The Federal Congress might compel the attendance of members 272
Powers denied to the several states 272
Should the federal government he allowed to make its promissory notes a legal tender in payment of debts? powerful speech of Gouverneur Morris 273
Emphatic and unmistakable condemnation of paper money by all the leading delegates 274
The convention refused to grant to the federal government the power of issuing inconvertible paper, but did not think an express prohibition necessary 275
If they could have foreseen some recent judgments of the supreme court, they would doubtless have made the prohibition explicit and absolute 276
Debates as to the federal executive 277
Sherman's suggestion as to the true relation of the executive to the legislature 278
There was to be a single chief magistrate, but how should he be chosen? 279
Objections to an election by Congress 280
Ellsworth and King suggest the device of an electoral college, which is at first rejected 281
But afterwards adopted 282
Provisions for an election by Congress in the case of a failure of choice by the electoral college 283
Provisions for counting the electoral votes 284
It was not intended to leave anything to be decided by the president of the Senate 285
The convention foresaw imaginary dangers, but not the real ones 286
Hamilton's opinion of the electoral scheme 287
How it has actually worked 288
In this part of its work the convention tried to copy from the British Constitution 289
In which they supposed the legislative and executive departments to be distinct and separate 290
Here they were misled by Montesquieu and Blackstone 291
What our government would be if it were really like that of Great Britain 292–294
In the British government the executive department is not separated from the legislative 295
Circumstances which obscured the true aspect of the case a century ago 296–298
The American cabinet is analogous, not to the British cabinet, but to the privy council 299
The federal judiciary, and its remarkable character 300–301
Provisions for amending the Constitution 302
The document is signed by all but three of the delegates 303
And the convention breaks up 304
With a pleasant remark from Franklin 305
Franklin lays the Constitution before the legislature of Pennsylvania 306
It is submitted to Congress, which refers it to the legislatures of the thirteen states, to be ratified or rejected by the people in conventions 307
First American parties, Federalists and Antifederalists 308, 309
The contest in Pennsylvania 310
How to make a quorum 311
A war of pamphlets and newspaper squibs 312, 313
Ending in the ratification of the Constitution by Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey 314
Rejoicings and mutterings 315
Georgia and Connecticut ratify 316
The outlook in Massachusetts 317, 318
The Massachusetts convention meets 319
And overhauls the Constitution clause by clause 320
On the subject of an army Mr. Nason waxes eloquent 321
The clergymen oppose a religious test 322
And Rev. Samuel West argues on the assumption that all men are not totally depraved 323
Feeling of distrust in the mountain districts 324
Timely speech of a Berkshire farmer 325, 326
Attitude of Samuel Adams 326, 327
Meeting of mechanics at the Green Dragon 327
Charges of bribery 328
Washington's fruitful suggestion 329
Massachusetts ratifies, but proposes amendments 330
The Long Lane has a turning and becomes Federal Street 331
New Hampshire hesitates, but Maryland ratifies, and all eyes are turned upon South Carolina 332
Objections of Rawlins Lowndes answered by Cotesworth Pinckney 333
South Carolina ratifies the Constitution 334
Important effect upon Virginia, where thoughts of a southern confederacy had been entertained 335, 336
Madison and Marshall prevail in the Virginia convention, and it ratifies the Constitution 337
New Hampshire had ratified four days before 338
Rejoicings at Philadelphia; riots at Providence and Albany 339
The struggle in New York 340
Origin of the "Federalist" 341–343
Hamilton wins the victory, and New York ratifies 344
All serious anxiety is now at an end; the laggard states, North Carolina and Rhode Island 345
First presidential election, January 7, 1789; Washington is unanimously chosen 346
Why Samuel Adams was not selected for vice-president 347
Selection of John Adams 348
Washington's journey to New York, April 16–23 349
His inauguration 350


By John Fiske


The Mystery of Evil
I. The Serpent's Promise to the Woman 3
II. The Pilgrim's Burden 8
III. Manichæism and Calvinism 14
IV. The Dramatic Unity of Nature 22
V. What Conscious Life is made of 27
VI. Without the Element of Antagonism there could be no Consciousness, and therefore no World 34
VII. A Word of Caution 40
VIII. The Hermit and the Angel 43
IX. Man's Rise from the Innocence of Brutehood 48
X. The Relativity of Evil 54

The Cosmic Roots of Love and Self-Sacrifice
I. The Summer Field, and what it tells us 59
II. Seeming Wastefulness of the Cosmic Process 65
III.[Pg xiv] Caliban's Philosophy 72
IV. Can it be that the Cosmic Process has no Relation to Moral Ends? 74
V. First Stages in the Genesis of Man 80
VI. The Central Fact in the Genesis of Man 86
VII. The Chief Cause of Man's lengthened Infancy 88
VIII. Some of its Effects 96
IX. Origin of Moral Ideas and Sentiments 102
X. The Cosmic Process exists purely for the Sake of Moral Ends 109
XI. Maternity and the Evolution of Altruism 117
XII. The Omnipresent Ethical Trend 127

The Everlasting Reality of Religion
I. Deo erexit Voltaire 133
II. The Reign of Law, and the Greek Idea of God 147
III. Weakness of Materialism 152
IV. Religion's First Postulate: the Quasi-Human God 163
V. Religion's Second Postulate: the undying Human Soul 168
VI. Religion's Third Postulate: the Ethical Significance of the Unseen World 171
VII. Is the Substance of Religion a Phantom, or an Eternal Reality? 174
VIII.[Pg xv] The Fundamental Aspect of Life 177
IX. How the Evolution of Senses expands the World 182
X. Nature's Eternal Lesson is the Everlasting Reality of Religion 186


And Other Essays

By John Fiske


I. A Century of Science 1
II. The Doctrine of Evolution: its Scope and Purport 39
III. Edward Livingston Youmans 64
IV. The Part played by Infancy in the Evolution of Man 100
V. The Origins of Liberal Thought in America 122
VI. Sir Harry Vane 154
VII. The Arbitration Treaty 166
VIII. Francis Parkman 194
IX. Edward Augustus Freeman 265
X. Cambridge as Village and City 286
XI. A Harvest of Irish Folk-Lore 319
XII. Guessing at Half and Multiplying by Two 333
XIII. Forty Years of Bacon-Shakespeare Folly 350
XIV. Some Cranks and their Crotchets 405
Note 461
Index 467


By John Fiske

With Many Illustrations



Relations between the American colonies and the British government in the first half of the eighteenth century 1
The Lords of Trade 2
The governors’ salaries 3
Sir Robert Walpole 4
Views of the Lords of Trade as to the need for a union of the colonies 5
Weakness of the sentiment of union 6
The Albany Congress 6
Franklin’s plan for a federal union (1754) 7, 8
Rejection of Franklin’s plan 9
Shirley recommends a stamp act 10
The writs of assistance 11
The chief justice of New York 12
Otis’s “Vindication” 13
Expenses of the French War 14
Grenville’s resolves 15
Reply of the colonies 16
Passage of the Stamp Act 17
Patrick Henry and the Parsons’ Cause 18
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Stamp Act 19, 20
The Stamp Act Congress 20-22
Declaration of the Massachusetts assembly 22
Resistance to the Stamp Act in Boston 23
And in New York 24
Debate in the House of Commons 25, 26
Repeal of the Stamp Act 26, 27
The Duke of Grafton’s ministry 28
Charles Townshend and his revenue acts 29-31
Attack upon the New York assembly 32
Parliament did not properly represent the British people 32, 33
Difficulty of the problem 34
Representation of Americans in Parliament 35
Mr. Gladstone and the Boers 36
Death of Townshend 37
His political legacy to George III. 37
Character of George III. 38, 39
English parties between 1760 and 1784 40, 41
George III. as a politician 42
His chief reason for quarrelling with the Americans 42, 43
Character of Lord North 44
John Dickinson and the “Farmer’s Letters” 45
The Massachusetts circular letter 46, 47
Lord Hillsborough’s instructions to Bernard 48
The “Illustrious Ninety-Two” 48
Impressment of citizens 49
Affair of the sloop Liberty 49-51
Statute of Henry VIII. concerning “treason committed abroad” 52
Samuel Adams makes up his mind (1768) 53-56
Arrival of troops in Boston 56, 57
Letters of “Vindex” 58
Debate in Parliament 59, 60
All the Townshend acts, except the one imposing a duty upon tea, to be repealed 61
Recall of Governor Bernard 61
Character of Thomas Hutchinson 62
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Townshend acts 63
Conduct of the troops in Boston 64
Assault on James Otis 64
The “Boston Massacre” 65-68
Some of its lessons 69-72
Lord North becomes prime minister 72
Action of the New York merchants 73
Assemblies convened in strange places 74
Taxes in Maryland 74
The “Regulators” in North Carolina 74
Affair of the schooner Gaspee 75, 76
The salaries of the Massachusetts judges 76
Jonathan Mayhew’s suggestion (1766) 77
The committees of correspondence in Massachusetts 78
Intercolonial committees of correspondence 79
Revival of the question of taxation 80
The king’s ingenious scheme for tricking the Americans into buying the East India Company’s tea 81
How Boston became the battle-ground 82
Advice solemnly sought and given by the Massachusetts towns 82-84
Arrival of the tea; meeting at the Old South 84, 85
The tea-ships placed under guard 85
Rotch’s dilatory manœuvres 86
Great town meeting at the Old South 87, 88
The tea thrown into the harbour 88, 89
Moral grandeur of the scene 90, 91
How Parliament received the news 91-93
The Boston Port Bill 93
The Regulating Act 93-95
Act relating to the shooting of citizens 96
The quartering of troops in towns 96
The Quebec Act 96
General Gage sent to Boston 97, 98
Protest of the Whig Lords 99
Belief that the Americans would not fight 100
Belief that Massachusetts would not be supported by the other colonies 101
News of the Port Bill 101, 102
Samuel Adams at Salem 103, 104
Massachusetts nullifies the Regulating Act 105
John Hancock and Joseph Warren 106, 107
The Suffolk County Resolves 108
Provincial Congress in Massachusetts 109
First meeting of the Continental Congress (September 5, 1774) 110, 111
Debates in Parliament 112, 113
William Howe appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in America 113
Richard, Lord Howe, appointed admiral of the fleet 114
Franklin returns to America 115
State of feeling in the middle colonies 116
Lord North’s mistaken hopes of securing New York 117
Affairs in Massachusetts 101
Dr. Warren’s oration at the Old South 119
Attempt to corrupt Samuel Adams 120
Orders to arrest Adams and Hancock 121
Paul Revere’s ride 122, 123
Pitcairn fires upon the yeomanry at Lexington 124, 125
The troops repulsed at Concord; their dangerous situation 126, 127
The retreating troops rescued by Lord Percy 128
Retreat continued from Lexington to Charlestown 129
Rising of the country; the British besieged in Boston 130
Effects of the news in England and in America 130-133
Mecklenburg County Resolves 133
Legend of the Mecklenburg “Declaration of Independence” 133-135
Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen 135
Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point 136-140
Second meeting of the Continental Congress 141
Appointment of George Washington to command the Continental army 142-144
The siege of Boston 145
Gage’s proclamation 145
The Americans occupy Bunker’s and Breed’s hills 146
Arrival of Putnam, Stark, and Warren 147
Gage decides to try an assault 148, 149
First assault repulsed 149
Second assault repulsed 150
Prescott’s powder gives out 150
Third assault succeeds; the British take the hill 151
British and American losses 151, 152
Excessive slaughter; significance of the battle 153
Its moral effects 154
Washington’s arrival in Cambridge 155
Continental officers: Daniel Morgan 156
Benedict Arnold, John Stark, John Sullivan 157
Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox 158
Israel Putnam 159
Horatio Gates and Charles Lee 160
Lee’s personal peculiarities 161, 162
Dr. Benjamin Church 163
Difficult work for Washington 164
Absence of governmental organization 165
New government of Massachusetts (July, 1775) 166
Congress sends a last petition to the king 167
The king issues a proclamation, and tries to hire troops from Russia 168-170
Catherine refuses; the king hires German troops 170
Indignation in Germany 171
Burning of Falmouth (Portland) 171
Effects of all this upon Congress 172, 173
Montgomery’s invasion of Canada and capture of Montreal 174, 175
Arnold’s march through the wilderness of Maine 176
Assault upon Quebec (December 31, 1775) 177
Total failure of the attempt upon Canada 178
The siege of Boston 179
Washington seizes Dorchester Heights (March 4, 1776) 180, 181
The British troops evacuate Boston (March 17) 182, 183
Movement toward independence; a provisional flag (January 1, 1776) 184
Effect of the hiring of “myrmidons” 185
Thomas Paine 185
His pamphlet entitled “Common Sense” 186, 187
Fulminations and counter-fulminations 188
The Scots in North Carolina 188
Sir Henry Clinton sails for the Carolinas 189
The fight at Moore’s Creek; North Carolina declares for independence 189
Action of South Carolina and Georgia 190
Affairs in Virginia; Lord Dunmore’s proclamation 190
Skirmish at the Great Bridge, and burning of Norfolk 191
Virginia declares for independence 192
Action of Rhode Island and Massachusetts 192
Resolution adopted in Congress May 15 193
Instructions from the Boston town meeting 194
Richard Henry Lee’s motion in Congress 194
Debate on Lee’s 195, 196
Action of the other colonies; Connecticut and New Hampshire 196
New Jersey 197
Pennsylvania and Delaware 197-199
Maryland 199
The situation in New York 200
The Tryon plot 201
Final debate on Lee’s motion 202
Vote on Lee’s motion 203
Form of the Declaration of Independence 204
Thomas Jefferson 204, 205
The declaration was a deliberate expression of the sober thought of the American people 206, 207
Lord Cornwallis arrives upon the scene 208
Battle of Fort Moultrie (June 28, 1776) 209-211
British plan for conquering the valley of the Hudson, and cutting the United Colonies in twain 212
Lord Howe’s futile attempt to negotiate with Washington unofficially 213, 214
The military problem at New York 214-216
Importance of Brooklyn Heights 217
Battle of Long Island (August 27, 1776) 218-220
Howe prepares to besiege the Heights 220
But Washington slips away with his army 221
And robs the British of the most golden opportunity ever offered them 221-223
The conference at Staten Island 223, 224
General Howe takes the city of New York September 15 224
But Mrs. Lindley Murray saves the garrison 225
Attack upon Harlem Heights 225
The new problem before Howe 225, 226
He moves upon Throg’s Neck, but Washington changes base 227
Baffled at White Plans, Howe tries a new plan 228
Washington’s orders in view of the emergency 228
Congress meddles with the situation and muddles it 229
Howe takes Fort Washington by storm (November 16) 230
Washington and Greene 231
Outrageous conduct of Charles Le 231, 232
Greene barely escapes from Fort Lee (November 20) 233
Lee intrigues against Washington 233, 234
Washington retreats into Pennsylvania 234
Reinforcements come from Schuyler 235
Fortunately for the Americans, the British capture Charles Lee (December 13) 235-238
The times that tried men’s souls 238, 239
Washington prepares to strike back 239
He crosses the Delaware, and pierces the British centre at Trenton (December 26) 240, 241
Cornwallis comes up to retrieve the disaster 242
And thinks he has run down the “old fox" at the Assunpink (January 2, 1777) 242
But Washington prepares a checkmate 243
And again severs the British line at Princeton (January 3) 244
General retreat of the British upon New York 245
The tables completely turned 246
Washington’s superb generalship 247
Effects in England 248
And in France 249
Franklin’s arrival in France 250
Secret aid from France 251
Lafayette goes to America 252
Efforts toward remodelling the Continental army 252-255
Services of Robert Morris 255
Ill feeling between the states 256
Extraordinary powers conferred upon Washington 257-258
Invasion of New York by Sir Guy Carleton 259
Arnold’s preparations 260
Battle of Valcour Island (October 11, 1776) 260-262
Congress promotes five junior brigadiers over Arnold (February 19, 1777) 262
Character of Philip Schuyler 263
Horatio Gates 264
Gates intrigues against Schuyler 265
His unseemly behaviour before Congress 266
Charges against Arnold 267, 268
Arnold defeats Tryon at Ridgefield (April 27, 1777) 269
Preparations for the summer campaign 269
The military centre of the United States was the state of New York 270
A second blow was to be struck at the centre; the plan of campaign 271
The plan was unsound; it separated the British forces too widely, and gave the Americans the advantage of interior lines 272-274
Germain’s fatal error; he overestimated the strength of the Tories 274
Too many unknown quantities 275
Danger from New England ignored 276
Germain’s negligence; the dispatch that was never sent 277
Burgoyne advances upon Ticonderoga 277, 278
Phillips seizes Mount Defiance 279
Evacuation of Ticonderoga 279
Battle of Hubbardton (July 7) 280
One swallow does not make a summer 280-282
The king’s glee; wrath of John Adams 282
Gates was chiefly to blame 282
Burgoyne’s difficulties beginning 283
Schuyler wisely evacuates Fort Edward 284
Enemies gathering in Burgoyne’s rear 285
Use of Indian auxiliaries 285
Burgoyne’s address to the chiefs 286
Burke ridicules the address 286
The story of Jane McCrea 287, 288
The Indians desert Burgoyne 289
Importance of Bennington; Burgoyne sends a German force against it 290
Stark prepares to receive the Germans 291
Battle of Bennington (August 16); nearly the whole German army captured on the field 292, 293
Effect of the news; Burgoyne’s enemies multiply 294
Advance of St. Leger upon Fort Stanwix 295
Herkimer marches against him; Herkimer’s plan 296
Failure of the plan 297
Thayendanegea prepares an ambuscade 298
Battle of Oriskany (August 6) 298-300
Colonel Willett’s sortie; first hoisting of the stars and stripes 300-301
Death of Herkimer 301
Arnold arrives at Schuyler’s camp 302
And volunteers to retrieve Fort Stanwix 303
Yan Yost Cuyler and his stratagem 304
Flight of St. Leger (August 22) 305
Burgoyne’s dangerous situation 306
Schuyler superseded by Gates 306
Position of the two armies (August 19-September 12) 307
Why Sir William Howe went to Chesapeake Bay 308
Charles Lee in captivity 308-310
Treason of Charles Lee 311-314
Folly of moving upon Philadelphia as the “rebel capital” 314, 315
Effect of Lee’s advice 315
Washington’s masterly campaign in New Jersey (June, 1777) 316, 317
Uncertainty as to Howe’s next movements 317, 318
Howe’s letter to Burgoyne 318
Comments of Washington and Greene 319, 320
Howe’s alleged reason trumped up and worthless 320
Burgoyne’s fate was practically decided when Howe arrived at Elkton 321
Washington’s reasons for offering battle 321
He chooses a very strong position 322
Battle of the Brandywine (September 11) 322-326
Washington’s skill in detaining the enemy 326
The British enter Philadelphia (September 26) 326
Significance of Forts Mercer and Mifflin 327
The situation at Germantown 327, 328
Washington’s audacious plan 328
Battle of Germantown (October 4) 329-332
Howe captures Forts Mercer and Mifflin 333
Burgoyne recognizes the fatal error of Germain 333
Nevertheless he crosses the Hudson River 334
First battle at Freeman’s Farm (September 19) 335
Quarrel between Gates and Arnold 336-337
Burgoyne’s supplies cut off 338
Second battle at Freeman’s Farm (October 7); the British totally defeated by Arnold 338-340
The British army is surrounded 341
Sir Henry Clinton comes up the river, but it is too late 342
The silver bullet 343
Burgoyne surrenders (October 17) 343, 344
Schuyler’s magnanimity 345
Bad faith of Congress 346-349
The behaviour of Congress was simply inexcusable 350
What became of the captured army 350, 351


By John Fiske






Tercentenary of the Discovery of America, 1792 1
The Abbé Raynal and his book 2
Was the Discovery of America a blessing or a curse to
mankind? 3
The Abbé Genty's opinion 4
A cheering item of therapeutics 4
Spanish methods of colonization contrasted with English 5
Spanish conquerors value America for its supply of precious
metals 6
Aim of Columbus was to acquire the means for driving the
Turks from Europe 7
But Spain used American treasure not so much against Turks
as against Protestants 8
Vast quantities of treasure taken from America by Spain 9
Nations are made wealthy not by inflation but by production 9
Deepest significance of the discovery of America; it opened
up a fresh soil in which to plant the strongest type of
European civilization 10
America first excited interest in England as the storehouse
of Spanish treasure 11
After the Cabot voyages England paid little attention to
America 12
Save for an occasional visit to the Newfoundland fisheries 13
Earliest English reference to America 13
Founding of the Muscovy Company 14
Richard Eden and his books 15
[Pg x]
John Hawkins and the African slave trade 15, 16
Hawkins visits the French colony in Florida 17
Facts which seem to show that thirst is the mother of invention 18
Massacre of Huguenots in Florida; escape of the painter Le
Moyne 18
Hawkins goes on another voyage and takes with him young
Francis Drake 19
The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the journey of David
Ingram 20
Growing hostility to Spain in England 21
Size and strength of Elizabeth's England 21, 22
How the sea became England's field of war 22
Loose ideas of international law 23
Some bold advice to Queen Elizabeth 23
The sea kings were not buccaneers 24
Why Drake carried the war into the Pacific Ocean 25
How Drake stood upon a peak in Darien 26
Glorious voyage of the Golden Hind 26, 27
Drake is knighted by the Queen 27
The Golden Hind's cabin is made a banquet-room 28
Voyage of the half-brothers, Gilbert and Raleigh 28
Gilbert is shipwrecked, and his patent is granted to Raleigh 29
Raleigh's plan for founding a Protestant state in America
may have been suggested to him by Coligny 30
Elizabeth promises self-government to colonists in America 31
Amidas and Barlow visit Pamlico Sound 31
An Ollendorfian conversation between white men and red men 32
The Queen's suggestion that the new country be called in
honour of herself Virginia 32
Raleigh is knighted, and sends a second expedition under
Ralph Lane 32
Who concludes that Chesapeake Bay would be better than
Pamlico Sound 33
Lane and his party on the brink of starvation are rescued by
Sir Francis Drake 33
Thomas Cavendish follows Drake's example and circumnavigates
the earth 34
How Drake singed the beard of Philip II. 34
Raleigh sends another party under John White 35
The accident which turned White from Chesapeake Bay to
Roanoke Island 35
Defeat of the Invincible Armada 36, 37
[Pg xi]
The deathblow at Cadiz 38
The mystery about White's colony 38, 39
Significance of the defeat of the Armada 39, 40



Some peculiarities of sixteenth century maps 41
How Richard Hakluyt's career was determined 42
Strange adventures of a manuscript 43
Hakluyt's reasons for wishing to see English colonies planted
in America 44
English trade with the Netherlands 45
Hakluyt thinks that America will presently afford as good a
market as the Netherlands 46
Notion that England was getting to be over-peopled 46
The change from tillage to pasturage 46, 47
What Sir Thomas More thought about it 47
Growth of pauperism during the Tudor period 48
Development of English commercial and naval marine 49
Opposition to Hakluyt's schemes 49
The Queen's penuriousness 50
Beginnings of joint-stock companies 51
Raleigh's difficulties 52, 53
Christopher Newport captures the great Spanish carrack 53
Raleigh visits Guiana and explores the Orinoco River 54
Ambrosial nights at the Mermaid Tavern 54
Accession of James I 55
Henry, Earl of Southampton, Shakespeare's friend, sends
Bartholomew Gosnold on an expedition 55
Gosnold reaches Buzzard's Bay in what he calls North Virginia,
and is followed by Martin Pring and George
Weymouth 55, 56
Performance of "Eastward Ho," a comedy by Chapman and
Marston 56
Extracts from this comedy 57-59
Report of the Spanish ambassador Zuñiga to Philip III 59
First charter to the Virginia Company, 1606 60
"Supposed Sea of Verrazano" covering the larger part of the
area now known as the United States 61
Northern and southern limits of Virginia 62
The twin joint-stock companies and the three zones 62, 63
[Pg xii]
The three zones in American history 63
The kind of government designed for the two colonies 64
Some of the persons chiefly interested in the first colony
known as the London Company 65-67
Some of the persons chiefly interested in the second colony
known as the Plymouth Company 67, 68
Some other eminent persons who were interested in western
planting 68-70
Expedition of the Plymouth Company and disastrous failure
of the Popham Colony 70, 71
The London Company gets its expedition ready a little
before Christmas and supplies it with a list of instructions 71, 72
Where to choose a site for a town 72
Precautions against a surprise by the Spaniards 73
Colonists must try to find the Pacific Ocean 73
And must not offend the natives or put much trust in them 74
The death and sickness of white men must be concealed from
the Indians 75
It will be well to beware of woodland coverts, avoid malaria,
and guard against desertion 75
The town should be carefully built with regular streets 75, 76
Colonists must not send home any discouraging news 76
What Spain thought about all this 76, 77
Christopher Newport starts with a little fleet for Virginia 77
A poet laureate's farewell blessing 77-79



One of Newport's passengers was Captain John Smith, a
young man whose career had been full of adventure 80
Many persons have expressed doubts as to Smith's veracity,
but without good reason 81
Early life of John Smith 82
His adventures on the Mediterranean 83
And in Transylvania 84
How he slew and beheaded three Turks 85
For which Prince Sigismund granted him a coat-of-arms
which was duly entered in the Heralds' College 86
The incident was first told not by Smith but by Sigismund's
secretary Farnese 87
[Pg xiii]
Smith tells us much about himself, but is not a braggart 88
How he was sold into slavery beyond the Sea of Azov and
cruelly treated 88, 89
How he slew his master and escaped through Russia and
Poland 89, 90
The smoke of controversy 90
In the course of Newport's tedious voyage Smith is accused
of plotting mutiny and kept in irons 91
Arrival of the colonists in Chesapeake Bay, May 13, 1607 92
Founding of Jamestown; Wingfield chosen president 93
Smith is set free and goes with Newport to explore the James
River 93, 94
The Powhatan tribe, confederacy, and head war-chief 94
How danger may lurk in long grass 95
Smith is acquitted of all charges and takes his seat with the
council 96
Newport sails for England, June 22, 1607 96
George Percy's account of the sufferings of the colonists from
fever and famine 97
Quarrels break out in which President Wingfield is deposed
and John Ratcliffe chosen in his place 99
Execution of a member of the council for mutiny 100
Smith goes up the Chickahominy River and is captured by
Opekankano 101
Who takes him about the country and finally brings him to
Werowocomoco, January, 1608 102
The Indians are about to kill him, but he is rescued by the
chief's daughter, Pocahontas 103
Recent attempts to discredit the story 103-108
Flimsiness of these attempts 104
George Percy's pamphlet 105
The printed text of the "True Relation" is incomplete 105, 106
Reason why the Pocahontas incident was omitted in the
"True Relation" 106, 107
There is no incongruity between the "True Relation" and
the "General History" except this omission 107
But this omission creates a gap in the "True Relation," and
the account in the "General History" is the more intrinsically
probable 108
The rescue was in strict accordance with Indian usage 109
The ensuing ceremonies indicate that the rescue was an ordinary
case of adoption 110
The Powhatan afterward proclaimed Smith a tribal chief 111
[Pg xiv]
The rescue of Smith by Pocahontas was an event of real historical
importance 111
Captain Newport returns with the First Supply, Jan. 8, 1608 112
Ratcliffe is deposed and Smith chosen president 113
Arrival of the Second Supply, September, 1608 113
Queer instructions brought by Captain Newport from the
London Company 113
How Smith and Captain Newport went up to Werowocomoco,
and crowned The Powhatan 114
How the Indian girls danced at Werowocomoco 114, 115
Accuracy of Smith's descriptions 116
How Newport tried in vain to search for a salt sea behind the
Blue Ridge 116
Anas Todkill's complaint 117
Smith's map of Virginia 118



How puns were made on Captain Newport's name 119
Great importance of the Indian alliance 120
Gentlemen as pioneers 121
All is not gold that glitters 122
Smith's attempts to make glass and soap 123
The Company is disappointed at not making more money 124
Tale-bearers and their complaints against Smith 124
Smith's "Rude Answer" to the Company 125
Says he cannot prevent quarrels 125
And the Company's instructions have not been wise 126
From infant industries too much must not be expected while
the colonists are suffering for want of food 127
And while peculation and intrigue are rife and we are in sore
need of useful workmen 128
Smith anticipates trouble from the Indians, whose character
is well described by Hakluyt 129
What Smith dreaded 130
How the red men's views of the situation were changed 131
Smith's voyage to Werowocomoco 132
His parley with The Powhatan 133
A game of bluff 134
The corn is brought 135
Suspicions of treachery 136
[Pg xv]
A wily orator 137
Pocahontas reveals the plot 138
Smith's message to The Powhatan 138, 139
How Smith visited the Pamunkey village and brought Opekankano
to terms 139, 140
How Smith appeared to the Indians in the light of a worker
of miracles 141
What our chronicler calls "a pretty accident" 141
How the first years of Old Virginia were an experiment in
communism 142
Smith declares "He that will not work shall not eat," but
the summer's work is interrupted by unbidden messmates
in the shape of rats 143
Arrival of young Samuel Argall with news from London 143, 144
Second Charter of the London Company, 1609 144
The council in London 145
The local government in Virginia is entirely changed and
Thomas, Lord Delaware, is appointed governor for life 146
A new expedition is organized for Virginia, but still with a
communistic programme 147, 148
How the good ship Sea Venture was wrecked upon the Bermudas 149
How this incident was used by Shakespeare in The Tempest 150
Gates and Somers build pinnaces and sail for Jamestown,
May, 1610 151
The Third Supply had arrived in August, 1609 151
And Smith had returned to England in October 152
Lord Delaware became alarmed and sailed for Virginia 152
Meanwhile the sufferings of the colony had been horrible 153
Of the 500 persons Gates and Somers found only 60 survivors,
and it was decided that Virginia must be abandoned 154
Dismantling of Jamestown and departure of the colony 154, 155
But the timely arrival of Lord Delaware in Hampton Roads
prevented the dire disaster 155



To the first English settlers in America a supply of Indian
corn was of vital consequence, as illustrated at Jamestown
and Plymouth 156
Alliance with the Powhatan confederacy was of the first importance
to the infant colony 157
[Pg xvi]
Smith was a natural leader of men 157
With much nobility of nature 158
And but for him the colony would probably have perished 159
Characteristic features of Lord Delaware's administration 160
Death of Somers and cruise of Argall in 1610 161
Kind of craftsmen desired for Virginia 162
Sir Thomas Dale comes to govern Virginia in the capacity of
High Marshal 163
A Draconian code of laws 164
Cruel punishments 165
How communism worked in practice 166
How Dale abolished communism 167
And founded the "City of Henricus" 167, 168
How Captain Argall seized Pocahontas 168
Her marriage with John Rolfe 169
How Captain Argall extinguished the Jesuit settlement at
Mount Desert and burned Port Royal 170
But left the Dutch at New Amsterdam with a warning 171
How Pocahontas, "La Belle Sauvage," visited London and
was entertained there like a princess 171, 172
Her last interview with Captain Smith 172
Her sudden death at Gravesend 173
How Tomocomo tried to take a census of the English 173
How the English in Virginia began to cultivate tobacco in
spite of King James and his Counterblast 174
Dialogue between Silenus and Kawasha 175
Effects of tobacco culture upon the young colony 176, 177
The London Company's Third Charter, 1612 177, 178
How money was raised by lotteries 178
How this new remodelling of the Company made it an important
force in politics 179
Middleton's speech in opposition to the charter 180
Richard Martin in the course of a brilliant speech forgets
himself and has to apologize 181
How factions began to be developed within the London Company 182
Sudden death of Lord Delaware 183
Quarrel between Lord Rich and Sir Thomas Smith, resulting
in the election of Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer of the
Company 184
Sir George Yeardley is appointed governor of Virginia while
Argall is knighted 185
How Sir Edwin Sandys introduced into Virginia the first
American legislature, 1619 186
[Pg xvii]
How this legislative assembly, like those afterwards constituted
in America, were formed after the type of the
old English county court 187
How negro slaves were first introduced into Virginia, 1619. 188
How cargoes of spinsters were sent out by the Company in
quest of husbands 189
The great Indian massacre of 1622 189, 190



Summary review of the founding of Virginia 191-194
Bitter hostility of Spain to the enterprise 194
Gondomar and the Spanish match 195
Gondomar's advice to the king 196
How Sir Walter Raleigh was kept twelve years in prison 197
But was then released and sent on an expedition to Guiana 198
The king's base treachery 199
Judicial murder of Raleigh 200
How the king attempted to interfere with the Company's
election of treasurer in 1620 201
How the king's emissaries listened to the reading of the
charter 202
Withdrawal of Sandys and election of Southampton 203
Life and character of Nicholas Ferrar 203-205
His monastic home at Little Gidding 205
How disputes rose high in the Company's quarter sessions 206, 207
How the House of Commons rebuked the king 207, 208
How Nathaniel Butler was accused of robbery and screened
himself by writing a pamphlet abusing the Company 208
Some of his charges and how they were answered by Virginia
settlers 209
As to malaria 209
As to wetting one's feet 210
As to dying under hedges 211
As to the houses and their situations 211, 212
Object of the charges 212
Virginia assembly denies the allegations 213
The Lord Treasurer demands that Ferrar shall answer the
charges 214
A cogent answer is returned 214, 215
[Pg xviii]
Vain attempts to corrupt Ferrar 215, 216
How the wolf was set to investigate the dogs 216
The Virginia assembly makes "A Tragical Declaration" 217
On the attorney-general's advice a quo warranto
is served 217, 218
How the Company appealed to Parliament, and the king refused
to allow the appeal 217, 218
The attorney-general's irresistible logic 219
Lord Strafford's glee 220
How Nicholas Ferrar had the records copied 221, 222
The history of a manuscript 221, 222



A retrospect 223
Tidewater Virginia 224
A receding frontier 224, 225
The plantations 225
Boroughs and burgesses 226
Boroughs and hundreds 227, 228
Houses, slaves, indentured servants, and Indians 229
Virginia agriculture in the time of Charles I 230
Increasing cultivation of tobacco 231
Literature; how George Sandys entreated the Muses with
success 232
Provisions for higher education 233
Project for a university in the city of Henricus cut short by
the Indian massacre 234
Puritans and liberal churchmen 235
How the Company of Massachusetts Bay learned a lesson
from the fate of its predecessor, the London Company
for Virginia 236,237
Death of James I 238
Effect upon Virginia of the downfall of the Company 238-240
The virus of liberty 240
How Charles I. came to recognize the assembly of Virginia 241-243
Some account of the first American legislature 243, 244
How Edward Sharpless had part of one ear cut off 245
The case of Captain John Martin 245
How the assembly provided for the education of Indians 246
And for the punishment of drunkards 246
[Pg xix]
And against extravagance in dress 246
How flirting was threatened with the whipping-post 247
And scandalous gossip with the pillory 247
How the minister's salary was assured him 247
How he was warned against too much drinking and card-playing 248
Penalties for Sabbath-breaking 248
Inn-keepers forbidden to adulterate liquors or to charge too
much per gallon or glass 249
A statute against forestalling 249, 250
How Charles I. called the new colony "Our kingdom of
Virginia" 251
How the convivial governor Dr. Pott was tried for stealing
cattle, but pardoned for the sake of his medical services 253
Growth of Virginia from 1624 to 1642 253, 254



The Irish village of Baltimore 255
Early career of George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore 255, 256
How James I. granted him a palatinate in Newfoundland 256
Origin of palatinates 256, 257
Changes in English palatinates 258, 259
The bishopric of Durham 259, 260
Durham and Avalon 260
How Lord Baltimore fared in his colony of Avalon in Newfoundland 261
His letter to the king 262
How he visited Virginia but was not cordially received 263, 264
How a part of Virginia was granted to him and received the
name of Maryland 265
Fate of the Avalon charter 266
Character of the first Lord Baltimore 267
Early career of Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore 268
How the founding of Maryland introduced into America a
new type of colonial government 269, 270
Ecclesiastical powers of the Lord Proprietor 271
Religious toleration in Maryland 272
The first settlement at St. Mary's 273
Relations with the Indians 274
[Pg xx]
Prosperity of the settlement 275
Comparison of the palatinate government of Maryland with
that of the bishopric of Durham 275-285
The constitution of Durham; the receiver-general 276
Lord lieutenant and high sheriff 276
Chancellor of temporalities 277
The ancient halmote and the seneschal 277
The bishop's council 278
Durham not represented in the House of Commons until
after 1660 278
Limitations upon Durham autonomy 279
The palatinate type in America 280
Similarities between Durham and Maryland; the governor 281
Secretary; surveyor-general; muster master-general; sheriffs 282
The courts 282, 283
The primary assembly 283
Question as to the initiative in legislation 284
The representative assembly 284, 285
Lord Baltimore's power more absolute than that of any king
of England save perhaps Henry VIII 285



William Claiborne and his projects 286
Kent Island occupied by Claiborne 287
Conflicting grants 288
Star Chamber decision and Claiborne's resistance 289
Lord Baltimore's instructions 290
The Virginia council supports Claiborne 290, 291
Complications with the Indians 291, 292
Reprisals and skirmishes 293
Affairs in Virginia; complaints against Governor Harvey 293, 294
Rage of Virginia against Maryland 294, 295
How Rev. Anthony Panton called Mr. Secretary Kemp a
jackanapes 295
Indignation meeting at the house of William Warren 296
Arrest of the principal speakers 296
Scene in the council room 296, 297
How Sir John Harvey was thrust out of the government 297
[Pg xxi]
How King Charles sent him back to Virginia 298
Downfall of Harvey 299
George Evelin sent to Kent Island 299
Kent Island seized by Leonard Calvert 300
The Lords of Trade decide against Claiborne 301
Puritans in Virginia 301, 302
The Act of Uniformity of 1631 303
Puritan ministers sent from New England to Virginia 303
The new Act of Uniformity, 1643 304
Expulsion of the New England ministers 304
Indian massacre of 1644 305
Conflicting views of theodicy 306
Invasion of Maryland by Claiborne and Ingle 306-308
Expulsion of Claiborne and Ingle from Maryland 308
Lord Baltimore appoints William Stone as governor 308
Toleration Act of 1649 309-311
Migration of Puritans from Virginia to Maryland 312
Designs of the Puritans 313
Reluctant submission of Virginia to Cromwell 314
Claiborne and Bennett undertake to settle the affairs of
Maryland 315
Renewal of the troubles 316
The Puritan Assembly and its notion of a toleration act 316
Civil war in Maryland; battle of the Severn, 1655 317
Lord Baltimore is sustained by Cromwell and peace reigns
once more 318


Tidewater Virginia, from a sketch by the author Frontispiece
Michael Lok's Map, 1582, from Hakluyt's Voyages to America 60
The Palatinate of Maryland, from a sketch by the author 274


By John Fiske




Virginia depicted by an admirer 1
Her domestic animals, game, and song-birds 2
Her agriculture 2, 3
Her nearness to the Northwest Passage 3
Her commercial rivals 3, 4
Not so barren a country as New England 4
Life of body and soul were preserved in Virginia; Mr. Benjamin Symes and his school 5
Worthy Captain Mathews and his household 5
Rapid growth in population 6
Historical lessons in names of Virginia counties 7
Scarcity of royalist names on the map of New England 8, 9
As to the Cavaliers in Virginia; some popular misconceptions 9, 10
Some democratic protests 10, 11
Sweeping statements are inadmissible 11
Difference between Cavaliers and Roundheads was political, not social 12
Popular misconceptions regarding the English nobility; England has never had a noblesse, or upper caste 13
Contrast with France in this respect 13, 14
Importance of the middle class 14
Respect for industry in England 15
The Cavalier exodus 16
Political complexion of Virginia before 1649 16, 17
The great exchange of 1649 17, 18
Political moderation shown in Virginia during the Commonwealth period 18iv
Richard Lee and his family 19
How Berkeley was elected governor by the assembly 20
Lee's visit to Brussels 20
How Charles II. was proclaimed king in Virginia, but not before he had been proclaimed in England 21
The seal of Virginia 22, 23
Significant increase in the size of land grants 23, 24
Arrival of well-known Cavalier families 25
Ancestry of George Washington 25
If the pedigrees of horses, dogs, and fancy pigeons are important, still more so are the pedigrees of men 26
Value of genealogical study to the historian 26
The Washington family tree 27
How Sir William Jones paraphrased the epigram of Alc?us 28
Historical importance of the Cavalier element in Virginia 28
Differences between New England and Virginia were due not to differences in social quality of the settlers, but partly to ecclesiastical and still more to economical circumstances 29, 30
Settlement of New England by the migration of organized congregations 30
Land grants in Massachusetts 31
Township and village 31, 32
Social position of settlers in New England 32
Some merits of the town meeting 33
Its educational value 34
Primogeniture and entail in Virginia 35
Virginia parishes 35
The vestry a close corporation; its extensive powers 36
The county was the unit of representation 37
The county court was virtually a close corporation 38
Powers of the county court 39
The sheriff and his extensive powers 40
The county lieutenant 41
Jefferson's opinion of government by town meeting 42
Court day 42, 43
Summary 43
Virginia prolific in great leaders 44v
How the crude medi?val methods of robbery began to give place to more ingenious modern methods 45
The Navigation Act of 1651 45, 46
Second Navigation Act 46
John Bland's remonstrance 47
Some direct consequences of the Navigation Act 47
Some indirect consequences of the Navigation Act 48
Bland's exposure of the protectionist humbug 49, 50
His own proposition 50, 51
Effect of the Navigation Act upon Virginia and Maryland; disasters caused by low price of tobacco 51, 52
The Surry protest of 1673 52
The Arlington-Culpeper grant 53
Some of its effects 54
Character of Sir William Berkeley 55
Corruption and extortion under his government 56
The Long Assembly, 1661-1676 57
Berkeley's violent temper 57
Beginning of the Indian war 58
Colonel John Washington 59
Affair of the five Susquehannock envoys 60
The killing of the envoys 61
Berkeley's perverseness in not calling out a military force 62
Indian atrocities 62, 63
Nathaniel Bacon and his family 64
His friends William Drummond and Richard Lawrence 65
Bacon's plantation is attacked by the Indians, May, 1676 65
Bacon marches against the Indians and defeats them 66
Election of a new House of Burgesses 66
Arrest of Bacon 67
He is released and goes to lodge at the house of "thoughtful Mr. Lawrence" 67
Bacon is persuaded to make his submission and apologizes to the governor 68, 69
In spite of the governor's unwillingness, the new assembly reforms many abuses 70, 71
How the "Queen of Pamunkey" appeared before the House of Burgesses 72-74
The chairman's rudeness 74vi
Bacon's flight 74
His speedy return 75
How the governor was intimidated 76
Bacon crushes the Susquehannocks while Berkeley flies to Accomac and proclaims him a rebel 76
Bacon's march to Middle Plantation 77
His manifesto 78
His arraignment of Berkeley; he specifies nineteen persons as "wicked counsellors" 80
Oath at Middle Plantation 81
Bacon defeats the Appomattox Indians 82
Startling conversation between Bacon and Goode 82-86
Perilous situation of Bacon 86
The "White Aprons" at Jamestown 87
Bacon's speech at Green Spring 88
Burning of Jamestown 89
Persons who suffered at Bacon's hands 89, 90
Bacon and his cousin 90
Death of Bacon, Oct. 1, 1676 91
Collapse of the rebellion 92
Arrival of royal commissioners, January, 1677 92
Berkeley's outrageous conduct 93
Execution of Drummond 94
Death of Berkeley 95
Significance of the rebellion 96
How far Bacon represented popular sentiment in Virginia 97
Political changes since 1660; close vestries 98, 99
Restriction of the suffrage 100, 101
How the aristocrats regarded Bacon's followers 102, 103
The real state of the case 104
Effect of hard times 104, 105
Populist aspect of the rebellion 106
Its sound aspects 106
Bacon must ever remain a bright and attractive figure 107
A century of political education 108
Robert Beverley, clerk of the House of Burgesses 109
His refusal to give up the journals 110
Arrival of Lord Culpeper as governor 110, 111vii
The plant-cutters' riot of 1682 111, 112
Contracting the currency with a vengeance 112
Culpeper is removed and Lord Howard of Effingham comes to govern in his stead 113
More trouble for Beverley 114
For stupid audacity James II., after all, was outdone by George III. 114, 115
Francis Nicholson comes to govern Virginia and exhibits eccentric manners 115
How James Blair founded William and Mary College 116, 117
How Sir Edmund Andros came as Nicholson's successor and quarrelled with Dr. Blair 118
How young Daniel Parke one Sunday pulled Mrs. Blair out of her pew in church 119
Removal of Andros 119
The Earl of Orkney draws a salary for governing Virginia for the next forty years without crossing the ocean, while the work is done by lieutenant-governors 120
The first of these was Nicholson once more 120
Who removed the capital from Jamestown to Middle Plantation, and called it Williamsburg 121
How the blustering Nicholson, disappointed in love, behaved so badly that he was removed from office 122, 123
Fortunes of the college 123
Indian students 124
Instructions to the housekeeper 125
Horse-racing prohibited 126
Other prohibitions 126
The courtship of Parson Camm; a Virginia Priscilla 127, 128
Some interesting facts about the college 128, 129
Nicholson's schemes for a union of the colonies 129, 130
Maryland after the death of Oliver Cromwell 131
Fuller and Fendall 132
The duty on tobacco 133
Fendall's plot 134
Temporary overthrow of Baltimore's authority 135
Superficial resemblance to the action of Virginia 136
Profound difference in the situations 137viii
Collapse of Fendall's rebellion 138
Arrival of the Quakers 138, 139
The Swedes and Dutch on the Delaware River 139
Augustine Herman 140
He makes a map of Maryland and is rewarded by the grant of Bohemia Manor 141
How the Labadists took refuge in Bohemia Manor 142, 143
How the Duke of York took possession of all the Delaware settlements 143
And granted New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret 144
Which resulted in the bringing of William Penn upon the scene 144
Charter of Pennsylvania 145
Boundaries between Penn and Baltimore 145, 146
Old manors in Maryland 146
Life on the manors 147
The court leet and court baron 148
Changes wrought by slavery 148, 149
A fierce spirit of liberty combined with ingrained respect for law 149
Cecilius Calvert and his son Charles 150
Sources of discontent in Maryland 150
A pleasant little family party 151
Conflict between the Council and the Burgesses 151, 152
Burgesses claim to be a House of Commons, but the Council will not admit it 152
How Rev. Charles Nichollet was fined for preaching politics 153
The Cessation Act of 1666 153
Acts concerning the relief of Quakers and the appointment of sheriffs 153, 154
Restriction of suffrage in 1670 154, 155
Death of Cecilius, Lord Baltimore 155
Rebellion of Davis and Pate, 1676; their execution 156
How George Talbot, lord of Susquehanna Manor, slew a revenue collector and was carried to Virginia for trial 157
How his wife took him from jail, and how he was kept hidden until a pardon was secured 158
"A Complaint from Heaven with a Hue and Cry" 159
The anti-Catholic panic of 1689 159
Causes of the panic 160
How John Coode overthrew the palatinate government 161
But did not thereby bring the millennium 162ix
How Nicholson removed the capital from St. Mary's to Annapolis 162, 163
Unpopularity of the establishment of the Church of England 163
Episcopal parsons 164
Exemption of Protestant dissenters from civil disabilities 165
Seymour reprimands the Catholic priests 166
Cruel laws against Catholics 167
Crown requisitions 168
Benedict Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore, becomes a Protestant and the palatinate is revived 168, 169
Change in the political situation 170
Charles Carroll entertains a plan for a migration to the Mississippi Valley 171
How the seeds of revolution were planted in Maryland 171
End of the palatinate 172, 173
How the history of tobacco has been connected with the history of liberty 174
Rapid growth of tobacco culture in Virginia 175
Legislative attempts to check it 176
Need for cheap labour 176
Indentured white servants 177
How the notion grew up in England that Virginians were descended from convicts; Defoe's novels, a comedy by Mrs. Behn, Postlethwayt's Dictionary, and Gentleman's Magazine 178-180
Who were the indentured white servants 181
Redemptioners 182
Distribution of convicts 183
Prisoners of war 184
Summary 185
Careers of white freedmen 186
Representative Virginia families were not descended from white freedmen 187
Some of the freedmen became small proprietors 187
Some became "mean whites" 188, 189
Development of negro slavery; effect of the treaty of Utrecht 190
Anti-slavery sentiment in Virginia 191x
Theory that negroes were non-human 192
Baptizing a slave did not work his emancipation 193
Negroes as real estate 194
Tax on slaves 194
Treatment of slaves 195, 196
Fears of insurrection 196
Cruel laws 197, 198
Free blacks a source of danger 199
Taking slaves to England; did it work their emancipation? 200
Lord Mansfield's famous decision 201
Jefferson's opinion of slavery 201
Immoralities incident to the system 202, 203
Classes in Virginia society 204
Huguenots in Virginia 204, 205
Influence of the rivers upon society 206
Some exports and imports 207
Some domestic industries 208
Beverley complains of his countrymen as lazy, but perhaps his reproachful tone is a little overdone 210
Absence of town life 210, 211
Futile attempts to make towns by legislation 212
The country store and its treasures 213, 214
Rivers and roads 215
Tobacco as currency 216
Effect upon crafts and trades 217
Effect upon planters' accounts 218
Universal hospitality 219
Visit to a plantation; the negro quarter 220
Other appurtenances 221
The Great House or Home House 222
Brick and wooden houses 222, 223
House architecture 223, 224
The rooms 224
Bedrooms and their furniture 225
The dinner table; napkins and forks 226
Silver plate; wainscots and tapestry 227
The kitchen 228
The abundance of wholesome and delicious food 228, 229
The beverages, native and imported 229, 230
Smyth's picture of the daily life on a plantation 230, 231
Very different picture given by John Mason; the mode of life at Gunston Hall 232-234xi
A glimpse of Mount Vernon 235
Dress of planters and their wives 236
Weddings and funerals 237
Horses and horse-racing 237-239
Fox-hunting 239
Gambling 239, 240
A rural entertainment of the olden time 240, 241
Music and musical instruments 242
The theatre and other recreations 243
Some interesting libraries 243-245
Schools and printing 245, 246
Private free schools 246
Academies and tutors 247
Convicts as tutors 248
Virginians at Oxford 249
James Madison and his tutors 250
Contrast with New England in respect of educational advantages 251
Causes of the difference 252, 253
Illustrations from the history of American intellect 254
Virginia's historians; Robert Beverley 255
William Stith 255, 256
William Byrd 256-258
Jefferson's notes on Virginia; McClurg's Belles of Williamsburg; Clayton the botanist 259
Physicians, their prescriptions and charges 260
Washington's last illness 260
Some Virginia parsons, their tricks and manners 261, 263
Free thinking; superstition and crime 264
Cruel punishments 265
Lawyers 266
A government of laws 267
Some characteristics of Maryland 267-269
How South Carolina was a frontier against the Spaniards 270
How North Carolina was a wilderness frontier 271
The grant of Carolina to eight lords proprietors 272
John Locke and Lord Shaftesbury 272, 273
"Fundamental Constitutions" of Carolina 274xii
The Carolina palatinate different from that of Maryland 275
Titles of nobility 276
Albemarle colony 276
New Englanders at Cape Fear 277
Sir John Yeamans and Clarendon colony 277
The Ashley River colony and the founding of Charleston 278
First legislation in Albemarle 279
Troubles caused by the Navigation Act 280
The trade between Massachusetts and North Carolina 281
Eastchurch and Miller 282
Culpeper's usurpation 283
How Culpeper fared in London 284
How Charleston was moved from Albemarle Point to Oyster Point 285
Seth Sothel's tyranny in Albemarle and his banishment 286, 287
Troubles in Ashley River colony 287
The Scotch at Port Royal 288
A state without laws 289
Reappearance of Sothel, this time as the people's friend 289
His downfall and death 290
Clarendon colony abandoned 290
Philip Ludwell's administration 290, 291
Joseph Archdale and his beneficent rule 291
Sir Nathaniel Johnson and the dissenters 292
Unsuccessful attempt of a French and Spanish fleet upon Charleston 293
Thomas Carey 294
Porter's mission to England 295
Edward Hyde comes to govern North Carolina 296
Carey's rebellion 296, 297
Expansion of the northern colony; arrival of Baron Graffenried with Germans and Swiss; founding of New Berne 297
Accusations against Carey and Porter of inciting the Indians against the colony 297
These accusations are highly improbable and not well supported 298
Survey of Carolina Indians 298-300
Algonquin tribes 298
Sioux tribes; Iroquois tribes 299
Muscogi tribes 300
Algonquin-Iroquois conspiracy against the North Carolina settlements 300xiii
Capture of Lawson and Graffenried by the Tuscaroras; Lawson's horrible death 301
The massacre of September, 1711 302
Aid from Virginia and South Carolina 302, 303
Barnwell defeats the Tuscaroras 303
Crushing defeat of the Tuscaroras by James Moore; their migration to New York 304
Administration of Charles Eden 304, 305
Spanish intrigues with the Yamassees 305
Alliance of Indian tribes against the South Carolinians and nine months' warfare 306
Administration of Robert Johnson 306
The revolution of 1719 in South Carolina; end of the proprietary government in both colonies 308
Contrast between the two colonies 308, 309
Interior of North Carolina contrasted with the coast 310, 311
Unkempt life 311
A genre picture by Colonel Byrd 312, 313
Industries of North Carolina 313
Absence of towns 314, 315
A frontier democracy 315
Segregation and dispersal of Virginia poor whites 316
Spotswood's account of the matter 317
New peopling of North Carolina after 1720; the German immigration 318
Scotch Highlanders and Scotch-Irish 318, 319
Further dispersal of poor whites 319, 320
Barbarizing effects of isolation 321
The settlers of South Carolina, churchmen and dissenters 323
The open vestries 323
South Carolina parish, purely English in its origin, not French like the parishes of Louisiana 324
Free schools 325
Rice and indigo 326
Some characteristics of South Carolina slavery 327, 329
Negro insurrection of 1740 329
Cruelties connected with slavery 330
Social life in Charleston 331
Contrast between the two Carolinas 332, 333
The Spanish frontier and the founding of Georgia 333
James Oglethorpe and his philanthropic schemes 334
Beginnings of Georgia 335, 336
Summary; Cavaliers and Puritans once more 337xiv
The business of piracy has never thriven so greatly as in the seventeenth century 338
Pompey and the pirates 338
Chinese and Malay pirates on the Indian Ocean and Mussulman pirates on the Mediterranean Sea 339
The Scandinavian Vikings cannot properly be termed pirates 339, 340
Sir William Blackstone's remarks about piracy 340
Character of piracy 341
To call the Elizabethan sea-kings pirates is silly and outrageous 341, 342
Features of maritime warfare out of which piracy could grow 342, 343
Privateering 343
Fighting without declaring war 344
Lack of protection for neutral ships 344
Origin of buccaneering; "Brethren of the Coast" 345
Illicit traffic in the West Indies 346
Buccaneers and filibusters 347
The kind of people who became buccaneers 348
The honest man who took to buccaneering to satisfy his creditors 349
The deeds of Olonnois and other wretches 349, 350
Henry Morgan and his evil deeds 350, 351
Alexander Exquemeling and his entertaining book 352
How Morgan captured Maracaibo and Gibraltar in Venezuela 353
The treaty of America of 1670 for the suppression of buccaneering and piracy 353
Sack of Panama by Morgan and his buccaneers 354
How Morgan absconded with most of the booty 355
How English and Spanish governors industriously scotched the snake 355
How the chief of pirates became Sir Henry Morgan, deputy-governor of Jamaica, and hanged his old comrades or sold them to the Spaniards 356
How the treaty of America caused his downfall 357
Decline of buccaneering 357
Pirates of the South Sea 358, 359xv
Plunder of Peruvian towns 360
Effects of the alliance between France and Spain in 1701 360
Pirates in the Bahama Islands and on the Carolina coast 361
Effect of the navigation laws in stimulating piracy 362, 363
Effect of rice culture upon the relations between South Carolina settlers and the pirates 363
Wholesale hanging of pirates at Charleston 364
How pirates swarmed on the North Carolina coast 365
Until Captain Woodes Rogers captured the Island of New Providence in 1718 365
The North Carolina waters furnished the last lair for the pirates 365
How Blackbeard, the last of the pirates, levied blackmail upon Charleston 366, 367
Epidemic character of piracy; cases of Kidd and Bonnet 368
Fate of Bonnet and Blackbeard, and final suppression of piracy 369
Family and early career of Alexander Spotswood 370
He brings the privilege of habeas corpus to Virginia, but wrangles much with his burgesses 371
His energy and public spirit 372
How the Post-Office Act was resisted by the people 373, 375
Disputes as to power of appointing parsons 376
Beginnings of continental politics in America 376
Beginning of the seventy years' struggle with France 377
How the continental situation in America was affected by the war of the Spanish succession 378, 379
Different views of Spotswood and the assembly with regard to sending aid to Carolina 379, 380
How the royal governors became convinced that the thing most needed in English America was a continental government that could impose taxes 381
Franklin's plan for a federal union 381, 383
It was the failure of the colonies to adopt Franklin's plan that led soon afterwards to the Stamp Act 382, 383
How Spotswood regarded the unknown West 383
Attempts to cross the Blue Ridge 384
How the Blue Ridge was crossed by Spotswood 385xvi
Knights of the Golden Horseshoe 386
Spotswood's plan for communicating between Virginia and Lake Erie 387, 388
Condition of the postal service in the English colonies under Spotswood's administration 389
Brief mention of Governors Gooch and Dinwiddie 390
Importance of the Scotch-Irish migration to America 390, 391
In 1611 James I. began colonizing Ulster with settlers from Scotland and England 391
In Ulster they established flourishing manufactures of woollens and linens 392
Which excited the jealousy of rival manufacturers in England 393
Legislation against the Ulster manufacturers 393
Civil disabilities inflicted upon Presbyterians in Ulster 393
These circumstances caused such a migration to America that by 1770 it amounted to more than half a million souls 394
Many Scotch-Irish settled in the Shenandoah Valley, and were closely followed by Germans 395
This Shenandoah population exerted a most powerful democratizing influence upon the colony 396
Jefferson found in them his most powerful supporters 396
Lord Fairfax's home at Greenway Court; Fairfax's affection for Washington 397
How the surveying of Fairfax's frontier estates led Washington on to his public career 398
The advance of Virginians from tidewater to the mountains brought on the final struggle with France 398, 399
Advance of the French from Lake Erie 399
Washington goes to warn them from encroaching upon English territory 399
Westward Growth of Old Virginia, from a sketch by the author Frontispiece
North Carolina Precincts in 1729, after a map in Hawks's History of North Carolina 276
A Map of ye most Improved Part of Carolina, from Winsor's America, vol. v. p. 351 306


By John Fiske


I. Difficulty of expressing the Idea of God so that it can be readily understood 35
II. The Rapid Growth of Modern Knowledge 46
III. Sources of the Theistic Idea 62
IV. Development of Monotheism 72
V. The Idea of God as immanent in the World 81
VI. The Idea of God as remote from the World 87
VII. Conflict between the Two Ideas, commonly misunderstood as a Conflict between Religion and Science 97
VIII. Anthropomorphic Conceptions of God 111
IX. The Argument from Design 118
X. Simile of the Watch replaced by Simile of the Flower 128
XI. The Craving for a Final Cause 134
XII. Symbolic Conceptions 140
XIII. The Eternal Source of Phenomena 144
XIV. The Power that makes for Righteousness 158

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Index of the Project Gutenberg Works
of John Fiske, by John Fiske


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